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NC3PS - 2016


Paper Title :: QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF HWMP BASED WIRELESS MESH NETWORKS USING NS-3
Author Name :: A.B Nataraju || Dr. H D Maheshappa || Amar Devkatte
Country :: India
Page Number :: 01-06
Wireless mesh network deployments are considered as a cost-effective means to provide broadband connectivity to a large population. With an increase in network usage, the network planners need to enhance the existing mesh network to provide additional capacity. This work analyzes the HWMP protocol's performance with varied grid size, packet size, and number of interfaces / radios. It is observed that HWMP protocol perform well with more number of radios and larger grid size as long as the packet size is limited to 2000 bytes. The performance degrades drastically beyond 2000 bytes of packets and is not suitable to operate with larger packet sizes.
Keywords: HWMP,IEEE 802.11s, Multi-Radio, NS3,WMNs
[1]. I. F. Akyildiz and X. Wang, Wireless Mesh Networks, (UK: Wiley, 2009, pp. 1-283).
[2]. Tom Imboden, Kemal Akkaya, Zach Moore, "Performance evaluation of wireless mesh networks using IEEE 802.11s and IEEE 802.11n", 2012 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 10-15 June 2012.
[3]. Pan Li, Nicola Scalabrino, Yuguang (Michael) Fang, Enrico Gregori, and Imrich Chlamtac, "How to Effectively Use Multiple Channels in Wireless Mesh Networks", IEEETRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 20, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009, pp.1641-1652
[4]. DARPA INTERNET PROGRAM PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION, https://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc791.txt
[5]. Azhar Hussain Mozumder, Tapodhir Acharjee, Sudipta Roy, "Scalability performance analysis of BATMAN and HWMP protocols in wireless mesh networks using NS-3", International Conference on Green Computing Communication and Electrical Engineering (ICGCCEE), 2014, 6-8 March 2014, pp.1-5

Paper Title :: Realization of Physical Layer Performance of IEEE 802.15.4
Author Name :: Lakshmi S || Madhubala Bharti || Ambika R
Country :: India
Page Number :: 07-10
Zigbee is a standard which aims at low cost, low data rate and low power consumption. It is used in wireless sensor networks for home/office automation, military and medical applications. It is used to communicate important and critical parameters to the base station. Zigbee nodes are deployed in different types of environment. It is essential to understand its behaviour so that we are able to analyze the effect of various communication channels and parameters such as bits per symbol. In this paper we focus on developing models in MATLAB to simulate and analyze the performance of Zigbee in the physical layer under different conditions and draw conclusions from the results obtained.
KEYWORDS: Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel(AWGN) , Bit Error Rate (BER), Packet Error Rate (PER), Rayleigh Channel, Ricean Channel, Signal to Noise ratio (SNR),Transceiver.
[1]. Alnuaimi, M., K. Shuaib, and I. Jawhar. "Performance evaluation of IEEE 802.15.4 physical layer using MatLab/simulink." Innovations in Information Technology, 2006. IEEE, 2006.
[2]. M Goyal , S Prakash, W Xie , Y Bashir , H Hosseini and A Durresi, "Evaluating The Impact of Signal to Noise Ratio on IEEE 802.15.4 PHY- evel Packet Loss Rate", in 13th International Conference on Network-Based Information Systems, 978-0-7695- 4167-9/10 IEEE DOI 10.1109/NBiS.2010.972010.
[3]. "Part 15.4: Wireless MAC and PHY layer specifications for low-rate wireless personal area networks," IEEE Std 802.15.4-2006, 2006.
[4]. I. Howitt and J. A. Gutierrez, "IEEE 802.15.4 low rate - Wireless personal area network coexistence issues," in Proc. IEEE Wireless Commun. Networking Conf., Mar. 2003, vol. 3, pp. 1481–1486.
[5]. J. A. Gutierrez, M. Naeve, E. Callaway, M. Bourgeois, V. Mitter and B. Heile, "IEEE 802.115.4; A Developing Standard for Low Power, Low Cost Wireless Personal Area Networks," IEEE Network, vol. 15, no. 5, Sept/Oct 2001, pp 12-19.

Paper Title :: Violence Detection in SurveillanceVideo-A survey
Author Name :: Anuja Jana Naik || M.T.Gopalakrishna
Country :: India
Page Number :: 11-17
The demand for automatic action recognition systems have increased due to the rapid increase in the number of video surveillance cameras installed in cities and towns. Automatic action recognition system can be effectively used to generate on-line alarm in case of abnormal activities to assist human operators and for offline inspection. Although action recognition problem has become a hot topic within computer vision, detection of violent scenes receives considerable attention in surveillance system which is justified by the need of providing people with safer public spaces. This survey discusses the current state of the art methods and techniques that are being applied for the task of automated violence detection.This survey emphasizes on motivation and challenges of this very recent research area by presenting approaches for violence recognition in surveillance video. This paper aims at being a driving force for researchers who wish to approach the study of violent activity recognition and gather insights on the main challenges to solve in this emerging field.
Keywords: Dataset, Motion Binary pattern, Optical flow, Space Time Interest Point, Violence Detection.
[1]. Clarin C, Dionisio J, Echavez M, Naval P ,DOVE: Detection of movie violence using motion intensity Analysis on skin and blood, Technical report, University of the Philippines, 2005
[2]. Chen L, Su C, Hsu H ,Violent scene detection in movies, International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, vol 25, 2011,pp: 1161–1172.
[3]. XinJi, Ou Wu, Chenlong Wang, Jinfeng Yang, Visual Feature-Based Violent Video Detection, In Proceedings of Communication Control and Intelligent System ,IEEE,2014,pp:619-623.
[4]. Cheng W, Chu W, Ling J, Semantic context detection based on hierarchical audio models, In Proceedings of the ACM SIGMM Workshop on Multimedia Information Retrieval, 2003, pp. 109-115.
[5]. T. Giannakopoulos, A. Pikrakis, S. Theodoridis, Violence content classification using audio features, In Proceedings of the 4th Hellenic Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Crete, Greece, 2006, pp: 502–507.

Paper Title :: Design of Multi-Level Inverter using CHB Connection
Author Name :: H.D. Kattimani || Anusha Sridharan
Country :: India
Page Number :: 18-23
In this world we have a huge demand for power with rapid development. As we have shortage of power we are implementing new techniques day by day to meet our daily demand. In our present paper we have come up with a new way of connecting separate dc sources in cascaded manner. In the present modeling 7- level H bridge cascaded is used. In our paper we are implementing symmetric inputs of dc voltage source to inverters. We are using three stages of dc sources to achieve seven levels of output as desired. The pulse width of the controlling signal can be designed as per the needs and switching frequencies. In this way we can further achieve high efficiency by reducing loses, number of switches and inverter size without any change in output of inverter.
KEYWORDS: PWM pulses, Multi-level inverter, H- Bridge, harmonic distortion, power quality
[1]. M.Kavitha, A.Arunkumar, N.Gokulnath, S.Arun" New Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel InverterTopology With Reduced Number Of Switches And Sources" Iosr Journals Of Electrical AndElectronics Engineering Issn: 2278-1676 Volume 2, Issue 6 (Sep-Oct. 2012), Pp 26-36
[2]. Vinayaka B.C, S.Nagendra Prasad "Modeling and Design of Five Level Cascaded HBridgeMultilevel Inverter with Dc/Dc Boost Converter" Vinayaka B.C Int. Journal OfEngineering Research And ApplicationsISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 6(Version 5), June2014, pp.50-55
[3]. P.Iraianbu, M. Sivakumar "A Single Dc Source Based Cascaded H-Bridge 5 LevelInverter" International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering andTechnology ISSN (Online): 2319 – 8753 ISSN (Print): 2347 – 6710Volume 3, SpecialIssue 1, February 2014
[4]. Divya Subramanian, RebiyaRashee" Five Level Cascaded H-Bridge MultilevelInverter Using Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation Technique"International Journal ofEngineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT)ISSN: 2277-3754 Volume 3, Issue 1, July2013
[5]. M.S. Sivagamasundari, Dr.P. Melba Mary"Analysis of Cascaded Five Level MultilevelInverter Using Hybrid Pulse Width Modulation"International Journal of EmergingTechnology and Advanced Engineering ISSN 2250-2459 Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2013

Paper Title :: Reliability and Energy Management Issues in Cognitive Wireless Sensor Networks: A Literature Review
Author Name :: Arunkumar B R || B. Muthuramalingam
Country :: India
Page Number :: 24-27
The most important requirements in many wireless sensor networks are reliability and energy management issues. In WSN, more energy is consumed during data transmission than sensing. Reliability is reduced due to increase in energy consumption by redundant data. Therefore it is essential to support energy efficient reliable data transport in WSN. Due to scarcity of resources and majority of these resources are utilized by urban areas, it is important to make cities greener and more sustainable. Hence smart cities are introduced recently. Automation process within a city will play a key role in smart cities. Energy consumption takes place when sensors sense the data and transport the same as part of automation. So wherever sensors are used, energy related issues in turn reliability should be considered. In this paper, we review some of the reliability and energy management issues in wireless sensornetworks.
Key words: Advanced sensing, Cognitive approach, , Energy management, Reliability, Smart city.
[1]. Edwin premkumar gilbert, Baskarankaliaperumal,et.al- Research issues in wireless sensor network applications: Asurvey-International Journal of Information and Electronics Electronics Engineering, vol.2, No.5, September2012
[2]. Chonggangwang, Mahmoud daneshmand , Bo Li, kazemsohrabt- A survey of transport protocols for wireless sensor networks.-AcceptedtoappearinIEEENetworkMagazinespecialissueonWSNs
[3]. Giuseppe Campobello, Alessandro leonardi, Sergio palazzo- Energy saving and reliability in wireless sensor networks using a CRT- based packet splitting algorithm- IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking volume 20 Issue 1, February2012
[4]. Moshaddique al amen and kyung-sup kwak- Social issues in wireless sensor networks with health care perspective- TheInternationalArabJournalofInformationTechnology,vol8,no,1,January2011
[5]. Neelamsrivastava - Challenges of next-generation wireless sensor networks and its impact on society- Journal of Telecommunications,volume1,issue1,February2010

Paper Title :: A Novel Method to Integrate Thermal and Electrical Stress in HVDC Cable
Author Name :: Babu Naik G || Mahipal Bhukya || Shilpa G || Ozwin Dominic D'souza
Country :: India
Page Number :: 28-33
The electrical conduction in insulating materials is a complex process, the DC conductivity(σ)of insulation is known to be strong and highly non-linear function of electric field and the temperature. Phenomenological expression has been suggested to estimate this quantity as well as the corresponding electric field. The analytical solution has been involved, and several theories have been suggested in the literature. However, the impact of using different models for cable insulation with including heat generation between conductor and sheath has not been investigated until now, but for the claims of relative accuracy. As a result, under certain conditions, the stress at cable screen is higher than that at the conductor boundary. This paper presents detailed investigation on using different empirical conductivity models suggested in the literature for HVDC cable applications. It has been expressly shown that certain models give rise to erroneous results in electric field and temperature computations. It is pointed out that the use of these models in the design or evaluation of cables will lead to errors.
[1]. C. K. Eo11, "Theory of Stress Distribution in Insulation of High Voltage DC Cables: Part 1", IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, vol. Electrical Insulation-10 , no. 1, Max. 1975.
[2]. M.MichelFallou,"Perforrationdielectrique parinstabilitethermique des cables a courant continu", Revue Generale de LElectricite, pp. 693- 695, Dec. 1959.
[3]. Ch. Chakradhar Reddy and T.S.Ramu, "On the computation of Electric Field and Temperature
Distribution in HV DC Cable insulation", IEEE trans. DEIS, Vol. 13 , no. 6, pp 1236-1244, Dec. 2006.
[4]. X. Qi, Z. Zheng, and S. Boggs, "Engineering with Nonlinear Dielectrics", IEEE, DEIS Feature Article,
Electrical Insulation Magazine, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 27-34, 2004.
[5]. J. M. Oudin and H. Thevenon, 'DC cables — determination of the gradient actually applied to the
insulant and its experimental correlation with breakdown gradient," CIGRE, paper 208, 1966.

Paper Title :: Performance Evaluation of AODV and OLSR Routing Protocols for Different Node Density in MANETs
Author Name :: Chaithanyaranga H V || Keerthi D S || Rohith D M || Adithya B R
Country :: India
Page Number :: 34-37
In this paper a comparative study is done for different routing protocols in mobile ad-hoc network by using directional antenna. The directional antenna is meta material rectangular patch antenna. Performance of MANET can be improved using meta material antenna, because of directivity and compact size of meta material antenna. Complexity of routing is day by day increasing between mobile users because of dynamic nature of mobile nodes and rapid change in mobile topologies in MANET. However, it is possible to reduce the network congestions by using the directional antenna. To find out which routing protocol gives better result for mobile ad-hoc networks, in the paper, the scenario of directional met material antenna is simulated for comparing and analyzing of different routing protocols such as AODV, OLSR using QualNet simulator 6.1. The metrics used for performance evaluation of different routing protocols we used throughput, average unicast end to end delay, and average uncast jitter of routing protocols.
KEYWORDS: AODV, MANET, OLSR, Qualnet.
[1]. Anuj K. Gupta, Harsh Sadawarti, and Anil K. Verma. Review of Various Routing Protocols for MANETs. International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 3, November 2011.
[2]. J. Jubin and J. D. Tornow. The DARPA Packet Radio Network Protocols. In Proceedings of the IEEE, volume 75, 1, pages 21{32, Jan. 1987.
[3]. B. Das and V. Bharghavan. Routing in Ad-hoc Net-works Using Minimum Connected Dominating Sets. In
[4]. S. Guha and S. Khuller. ApproximationAlgorithms for Connected Dominating Sets. University of Mary-land College Park Technical Report 3660, June 1996.

Paper Title :: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENT SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSIS OF CERVICAL CANCER: A BRIEF REVIEW AND FUTURE OUTLINE
Author Name :: CHANDRAPRABHA R || SEEMA SINGH
Country :: India
Page Number :: 38-41
Cervical cancer is the fourth-most universal basis of cancer and decease from cancer in women. An estimated 528,000 cases of cervical cancer occurred, with 266,000 deaths. This is about 8% of the total cases and total deaths from cancer. About 70% of cervical cancers arise in developing countries. In low-income countries, it is the most common cause of cancer death. In the design of an artificial intelligent system, image processing and classification techniques are the most important techniques. This paper aims at reviewing the various algorithms and techniques required for diagnosis of essential features for the classification of cervical cancer into three different stages of normal, Normal, Low Grade Squamus Intraepithelial (LSIL), High Grade Squamus Intraepithelial (HSIL),
Keywords: Artificial intelligent system, Image processing, Feature extraction, artificial intelligent classifier, Multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, Hierarchical Hybrid Multilayered Perceptron (H2MLP) classifier.
[1]. YessiJusman, SiewCheok Ng, and Noor Azuan Abu Osman, ―Review Article-Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer‖ Scientific World Journal Volume 2014, Article ID 810368, 15 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/810368.
[2]. Rajendra A Kerkar, Yogesh V Kulkarni,―Screening for cervical cancer: an overview‖The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India Vol. 56, No. 2 : March/April 2006 Pg 115-122.
[3]. Seema Singh, V. Tejaswini, Rishya P. Murthy, Amit Mutgi, ―Neural Network Based Automated System for Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer‖ International Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Engineering, 4(2), 27-42, July-December 2015
[4]. Neha.P.Raut ,.A.V.Gokhale,―FPGA implementation for image processing algorithms using Xilinx system generator‖, Journal of VLSI and Signal Processing (IOSR-JVSP) Volume 2, Issue 4 (May. – Jun. 2013), PP 26-36 e-ISSN: 2319 – 4200, p-ISSN No. : 2319 – 4197.
[5]. Eko Supriyanto, NurAzureen M. Pista, Lukman hakim Ismail, BustanurRosidi, Tati Latifah Mengko, ― Automatic detection system of cervical cancer cells using color intensity classification‖, Recent Researches in Computer Science,2011.

Paper Title :: Comparative Analysis of Image Enhancement Techniques to be used in Medical Images -A Survey
Author Name :: Drakshaveni.G || Dr. Prasad Naik Hamsavath
Country :: India
Page Number :: 42-51
Today almost every Human in the world wants their health records to be precise and truthful. Consequently the medical field required to use image enhancement technique for various reasons like it is possible to remove the noise from X-ray images to enhance contrast for better interpretation, sharping details of an image to improve the visual representation, sharpen the edges to increase the contrast between suspicious regions and the background so that the doctors can diagnose and treat human diseases. In this paper a survey of various image enhancement techniques is studied to focus on the development of image processing in medicine and healthcare.it is the milestone for analysing all the techniques in image enhancement in digital image processing.
Keywords: Image Enhancement, Digital image processing (DIP), spatial domain, Frequency domain.
[1]. Rajesh Garg, Bhawna Mittal, Sheetal Garg, "Histogram Equalization Techniques for Image Enhancement", IJECT Vol. 2,Issue 1,March2011,ISSN 2230-9543.
[2]. Komal Viji , Yaduvir Singh, "Comparison between Different Techniques of Image Enhancement" International Journal of VLSI and signal Processing Applications, Vol.1,Issue 2,May 2011 ,(112-117),ISSN 2231-3133.
[3]. Raman Maini and Himanshu Aggarwal,"A Comprehensive Review of Image Enhancement Techniques", Journal of Computing, Vol. 2, Issue 3, March 2010, ISSN 2151-9617.
[4]. Agaian, SOS S., Blair Silver, Karen A. Panetta," Transform Coefficient Histogram-Based Image Enhancement Algorithms Using Contrast Entropy" IEEE Transaction on Image Processing, Vol.16, No. 3, March 2007.
[5]. Jinshan Tang Eli Peli , and Scott Acton , "Image Enhancement Using a Contrast Measure in the Compressed Domain", IEEE Signal Processing Letters ,Vol.10,No.10,October 2003.

Paper Title :: Parallel Processing Deblocking Filter Hardware for High Efficiency Video Coding
Author Name :: Darshan G V || Dinesha P
Country :: India
Page Number :: 52-58
High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is a recent video compression standard, it uses adaptive deblocking filter for reducing blocking artifacts. This deblocking filter performs strong filtering, weak filtering or no filtering based on different conditions. HEVC deblocking filter (DBF) have high computational complexity but it provides about 50% higher bit rate reduction for same perceptual video quality compared to H.264. This HEVC deblocking filter is used in both encoder and decoder for HEVC. Deblocking filter improves the overall quality of video frame by improving both subjective and objective quality. Using parallel processing/pipelining the efficiency of the system could be improved. The proposed work implements parallel datapath system and thus enhances the throughput. It is implemented using Verilog HDL and the FPGA used is Xilinx vertex-5
KEYWORDS: High Efficiency Video Coding, deblocking filter, blocking artifacts, datapath, throughput
[1] E. Ozcan, Y. Adibelli, and I. Hamzaoglu, A high performance deblocking filter hardware for high efficiency video coding, IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron, vol. 59, no. 3, 2013, 714–720.
[2] Hoai-Huong Nguyen Le and Jongwoo Bae, High-Throughput Parallel Architecture for H.265/HEVC Deblocking Filter, Journal Of Information Science And Engineering, 30, 2014, 281-294.
[3] W. Shen, Q. Shang, S. Shen, Y. Fan, and X. Zen, A high-throughput VLSI architecture for deblocking filter in HEVC, in Proc. IEEE Int.Symp. Circuits Syst., 2013, 673–676.
[4] A. Norkin et al., HEVC deblocking filter, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.Video Technol., vol. 22, no. 12, 2012, 1746–1754.
[5] Cláudio Machado Diniz, Muhammad Shafique, Felipe Vogel Dalcin, Sergio Bampi, Jörg Henkel , A Deblocking Filter Hardware Architecture for the High Efficiency Video Coding Standard, Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE), 2015, 1509-1514.

Paper Title :: Design of Intelligent Traffic Control System Based on ARM
Author Name :: Deevith.N.Reddy || Akshay Kumar C. || Shashikala J. || Ambika R.
Country :: India
Page Number :: 59-62
Nowadays congestion in traffic is a serious issue. The traffic congestion can also be caused by long Red light delays, etc. The delay of respective light is hard coded in the traffic light and it is not dependent on traffic. Therefore for simulating and optimising traffic control to better accommodate this increasing demand is arises. In this project we discussed the optimisation of traffic light controller in a Metropolitan City using micro-controller and Digital Display. The system tries to reduce possibilities of traffic jams, caused by traffic lights, to an extent and give ease to drivers to avoid congested path. The system is based on micro- controller, GPRS module, IR sensors and Digital Display. Micro- controller also store vehicles count in its memory. Based on different vehicles count, the microcontroller takes decision and updates the traffic light delays as a result. The traffic light will decide itself the timing based on the current traffic density. This system is monitored in a monitoring station via cloud. All the information that is stored in the ARM7 is transmitter to the cloud via the GPRS module that is being installed.
KEYWORDS: ARM7, Infrared(IR) sensor, GPRS.
[1]. Xu Li, Wei Shu, Minglu Li, Hong-Yu Huang, Pei-En Luo, and Min-You Wu, "Performance Evaluation of Vehicle-Based Mobile Sensor Networks for Traffic Monitoring" IEEE 2009
[2]. Samy Sadeky, Ayoub Al-Hamadiy, Bernd Michaelisy, Usama Sayedz,"Real-time Automatic Traffic Accident Recognition Using HFG", 2010 International Conference on Pattern Recognition
[3]. Malik Tubaishat, Qi Qi, Yi Shang, Hongchi Shi "Wireless Sensor-Based Traffic Light Control", IEEE 2008
[4]. Zhang Yuye,Yan Weisheng "Research of Traffic Signal Light Intelligent Control System Based On Microcontroller" IEEE 2009
[5]. Shilpa S. Chavan , Dr. R. S. Deshpande, J. G. Rana "Design Of Intelligent Traffic Light Controller Using Embedded System", Second International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology, ICETET-09

Paper Title :: A Study on Ontology Life Cycle & Co-Relation Matrix
Author Name :: Manjunath A || Manjunath T N || Chandrashekar K T
Country :: India
Page Number :: 63-68
In modern virtual world, knowing each other and understanding is very difficult. In this paper we present a study on ontology life cycle which would help us in understanding the human emotions. Ontology is an effective computing paradigm which made it possible to include findings from social and psychology. The new method for emotion detection from text which depends on ontology extraction from the input sentence by using a triplet extraction algorithm. Then make an ontology matching with the ontology base that we created by similarity and word sense disambiguation. This ontology base consists of ontologies and the emotion label related to each one. We choose the emotion label of the sentence with the highest score of matching. If the extracted ontology doesn't match any ontology from the ontology base we use the keyword-based approach. This method doesn't depend only on keywords like the previous approaches it depends on the meaning of sentence words and the syntax and semantic analysis of the context. Ontology-based applications play an increasingly important role in the public and corporate Semantic Web. Methodologies used for the development of knowledge-based applications focus purely on knowledge engineering. Architectures for semantic web services involve ontologies, but naturally focus on services. For instance, WSMO or ODE-SWS provide ontology-based mechanisms to formally describe services and arriving at co-relation matrix between emotion classes.
Keywords: Ontology, Co-relation Matrix, Behavioral System
[1]. An Introduction to Ontologies and Ontology Engineering, Catherine Roussey, Francois Pinet, Myoung Ah Kang, and Oscar Corcho
[2]. METHONTOLOGY: From Ontological Art Towards Ontological Engineering, Mariano Ferndndez, Asunci6n G6mez-P~rez, Natalia Juristo
[3]. Towards an Ontology for Describing Emotions. Juan Miguel López, Rosa Gil, Roberto García, IdoiaCearreta, and Nestor Garay
[4]. Lifecycle-Support in Architectures for Ontology-Based Information Systems, Thanh Tran and Peter Haase and HolgerLewen and Óscar Muñoz-García and Asunción Gómez-Pérez and Rudi Studer Institute AIFB, Universität Karlsruhe, Germany
[5]. R. L. Breiger, The Analysis of Social Networks. London: Sage Publications Ltd, 2004, pages 505-526 in Handbook of Data Analysis,edited by Melissa Hardy and Alan Bryman.

Paper Title :: Performance Evaluation of AODV Routing Protocol for Different Node Density and Traffic in Wireless Sensor Networks
Author Name :: Gaurav J.M || Keerthi H.K || Chithanyaranga H.V || Keerthi D.S
Country :: India
Page Number :: 69-72
The development of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in various applications like Defence, Health, Environment monitoring, Industry etc. always attract many researchers in this field. WSN is the network which consists of collection of tiny devices called sensor nodes. Sensor node typically combines wireless radio transmitter-receiver and limited energy, restricted computational processing capacity and communication band width. These sensor node sense some physical phenomenon using different transduces. The current improvement in sensor technology has made possible WSNs that have wide and varied applications. While selecting the right sensor for application a number of characteristics are important. This paper provides the overview of WSNs and the performance of AODV for different node density and traffic is evaluated using Qualnet6.1 simulator from the results AODV performs better for lower node density and traffic as compared to the higher node density and traffic.
KEYWORDS: AODV, Routing Protocols, Sensor node, WSNs.
[1]. Joanna Kulik, Hari Balakrishnan and W. R. Heinzelman, (1999) "Adaptive protocols for Information Dissemination in Wireless sensor networks", proceeding on 5th annual ACM/IEEE International conference on mobile Computing and networking, pp. 174-185.
[2]. ChalermekIntanagonwiwat, Ramesh Govindan, Deborah Estrin, John Heidemann and Fabio Silva, "Directed Diffusion for Wireless Sensor Networking", IEEE/ACM Transactions on networking (TON), vol. 11, pp. 2-16, February 2003.
[3]. Joanna Kulik, HariBalakrishnan and W. R. Heinzelman, "Negotiation-Based Protocols for Disseminating Information in Wireless Sensor Network," Wireless Network, vol. 8, pp. 169-185,2002.
[4]. Li Xi Chen and Xiaohong Guan, (2004) "A New Gradient-Based Routing Protocol in Wireless SensorNetworks", proceedings of the First International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems,pp. 318-325.
[5]. Ankitajoshi and Lakshmi Priya.m, "A survey of Hierarchical Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network", MES Journal of technology and Management, pp.67-71

Paper Title :: Development of light weight algorithms in a customized communication protocol for Micro Air Vehicles
Author Name :: Hamsavahini R || Rashmi N || Varun N, Swaroop R S || Vuppu Satya Praneeth || Sankar Narayana R N
Country :: India
Page Number :: 73-79
In this paper, a secure communication protocol between drones and smart objects is presented. This paper suggests the improvement of security in MAV communication protocol for the communication between the GCS and the MAV. Proposed method involves the implementation of the Caesar Cipher method of data encryption with a secured key. The method of Ciphering is used for authentication of the Micro Aerial Vehicle at the beginning of the communication.
KEYWORDS: Cipher , Encryption, GCS, MAV, Protocol
[1]. Meier, L. (2013). MAVLink Micro Air Vehicle Communication Protocol. Retrieved Online. accessed 13-01-2013, from http://qgroundcontrol. org/mavlink/start.
[2]. Mathias, H. David. "An autonomous drone platform for student research projects." Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges 31.5 (2016): 12-20
[3]. G. Crespo, G. Glez-de-Rivera, J. Garrido and R. Ponticelli, "Setup of a communication and control systems of a quadrotor type Unmanned Aerial Vehicle," Design of Circuits and Integrated Circuits (DCIS), 2014 Conference on, Madrid, 2014,pp.1-6. doi: 10.1109/DCIS.2014.7035590
[4]. Marty, J. A. (2013). Vulnerability analysis of the mavlink protocol for command and control of unmanned aircraft (No. AFIT-ENG-14-M-50). AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT.
[5]. Won, Jongho, Seung-Hyun Seo, and Elisa Bertino. "A Secure Communication Protocol for Drones and Smart Objects." Proceedings of the 10th ACM Symposium on Information, Computer and Communications Security. ACM, 2015.

Paper Title :: Intelligent Diesel Gasoline Engine Protection System
Author Name :: Kavana Salimath || Balaraj D || Chandan Kumar || Madhava Udupa E.V || Mounika G.G
Country :: India
Page Number :: 80-84
This paper proposes a techniques of using in expensive automated preventive control system for problem caused due to engine overheating. System is integrated to present various other information to the operator, and can help prevent major failure. The system consists of a controller mounted with LCD display and this project aims to identify failure of some parts of the vehicle like Break, Accelerator, Door lock, Clutch, Seat belt etc.viz. Immediately give a warning message to the user and to take the appropriate actions for preventing further damages. System can also be integrated as closed loop control system with an actuator to take preprogrammed actions like auto shutdown, radiator fan step-speed control etc. The project is developed as a vehicular checking system and speed control is based on P89V51RD2 Programmed in embedded 'C'. This paper sho detailed of equipment and technique used to create such monitoring unit.
Keywords: Diesel Engine; Overheating, LCD, Failure, Accelerator, P89V51RD2 Embedded C.
[1]. Lusetti, B.; Nouveliere, L.; Glaser, S.; Mammar, S. Experimental Strategy for A System Based Curve Warning System for A Safe Governed Speed of A Vehicle. In Proceedings of IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, June 2008; pp. 660–665.
[2]. Hsieh, W.H.; Ho, C.J.; Jong, G.J. Vehicle Information Communication Safety Combined with Mobile RFID. In Proceedings of International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, Harbin, China, August 15–17, 2008.
[3]. Chon, H.D.; Jun, S.B.; Jung, H.J.; An, S.W. Using RFID for Accurate Positioning. J. +Global Positioning Syst. 2004, 3, 32–39.
[4]. White Paper—'European Transport Policy for 2010: Time to Decide'; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, December 9, 2001.

Paper Title :: Universal Battery Module Synchronizer
Author Name :: T.G. Manjunath || Lathika P. Reddy || Bhavana S || Raghavi Gururajan || Ranjitha N
Country :: India
Page Number :: 85-90
Currently off-grid solar application's specifications are limited by battery ratings thus, solar specification finalization is a backward engineering process. Based on voltage rating of the inverter or batteries, solar modules are getting selected. Generally in small, every day or household applications lead acid batteries are being used, which are of 6V, 12V and 24V; thus different voltage rated modules are required in each case.
Universal Battery Module Synchronizer (UBMS) is a device which intelligently detects the voltage rating of the load connected and communicates with the module such that the module output and the battery rating are synchronized. It will be able to behave like a DC-DC converter which will check for the module's voltage and current output and based on battery charging voltage/current requirement it will jack up or reduce the voltage and in turn reduce or increase current respectively, in order to maintain law of conservation of energy.
Thus this unit is working like a universal matching component for any system and within a system between any combination of solar modules & Batteries.
UBMS-makes your module compatible with any load
KEYWORDS: Arduino microcontroller, Battery charging, PV module, Off-Grid application, Universal Battery Module Synchronizer (UBMS)
[1]. A.K. Mukherjee and Nivedita Thakur, Photovoltaic Systems – Analysis and Design, PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi, 2011
[2]. M.Barr, Embedded Systems Programming, 2001
[3]. Ned Mohan, Tore M. Undland and William P. Robbins, Power Electronics- Converters, Application and Design, John Wiley & Sons, New Delhi, 3 Edition, 2007
[4]. Simulink Product Description, The Mathworks. Inc.
[5]. J. Call Quer, Arduino Uno

Paper Title :: MONITOR AND REGULATE SYSTEM FOR GREENHOUSE, SERICULTURE AND POULTRY FARM
Author Name :: H.S Laxmisagar || Venkatarama reddy R || Mahmed pasha E || Ambuja M || Vivek C Mouli
Country :: India
Page Number :: 91-96
Monitoring and control of greenhouse, sericulture and poultry farm, environment play an important role in these production and management. To monitor the environment parameters effectively, it is necessary to design a measurement and control system. The objective of this project is to design a simple, easy to install, microcontroller-based circuit to monitor and record the values of temperature, humidity, soil moisture and sunlight of the natural environment that are continuously modified and controlled in order optimize them to achieve maximum growth and yield. The controller used to communicates with the various sensor modules in real-time in order to control the light, aeration and drainage process efficiently inside farming houses by actuating a cooler, heater, dripper and lights respectively according to the necessary condition of the crops. An integrated Liquid crystal display (LCD) is also used for real time display of data acquired from the various sensors and the status of the various devices. Also, the use of easily available components reduces the manufacturing and maintenance costs. The design is quite flexible as the software can be changed any time. It can thus be tailor-made to the specific requirements of the user. This makes the proposed system to be an economical, portable and a low maintenance solution for above mentioned farming houses applications, especially in rural areas and for small scale agriculturists.
Keywords: sensor network, Digital Agriculture, Environment Monitoring; Environment Parameter
[1]. Stipanicev D, Marasovic J, "Network embedded greenhouse monitoring and control‖" Proceedings of 2003 IEEE Conference on Control Applications, Vol.2, June, pp. 1350 - 1355, 2003.
[2]. Turnell, D.J. deFatima, Q.V., Turnell, M., Deep, G.S., Freire, R.C.S., ―Farm Web-an integrated, Modular farm automation system‖, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol.2, Oct., pp. 1184 - 1189, 1998
[3]. Rebecca Tyson Northen, Orchids As House Plants, Dover Publications, New York, 2nd Edition, 1985.
[4]. LeongBoon Tik, Chan ToongKhuan, SellappanPalaniappan‖ Monitoring of an Aeroponic Greenhouse with a Sensor Network‖ International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security.Vol.9, March pp. 240, 2009.
[5]. National Semiconductors, CMOS Logic Databook.

Paper Title :: TRANSFORMER INRUSH CURRENT DETECTOR
Author Name :: Manjula B K || Charan Reddy N || Raju S Shivaraj || N Varun
Country :: India
Page Number :: 97-101
Transformer inrush current detection is one of the major concerns in power system. When an unloaded transformer is energized with the normal voltage supply there exist an inrush current which has a peak value several times greater than the normal rated current. This is practically unobservable and sometimes operate the protective devices considering it as fault current instead of inrush current. The conventional method of inrush current detection recognizes the second harmonic[6] component of differential current. The proposed novel method uses Hall Effect ACS 712 current sensors to measure the current and an algorithm to differentiate the inrush current from normal current using ARDUINO microcontroller is used. A 1.5 KVA single-phase transformer was used in the laboratory to collect the data from the experiments.
Index Terms: Inrush Current, fault current, ACS712, Arduino.
[1]. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064 ―ANN based Technique for Discrimination between Magnetizing Inrush and Internal Fault Currents in Transformer‖ Mudita Mathur, Vinay Barhate
[2]. ―Characteristics of Inrush Current of Present Designs of Power Transformers‖ Ramsis S. Girgis , Fellow, IEEE ABB Inc. ,Ed G. teNyenhuis , Member, IEEE ABB Inc.
[3]. ―Design of New Transformer Protection Device Based on Wavelet Energy entropy-Neural Network Theory and FPGA‖ Na Wu*, Yinjing Guo, Yongqin Wei Shuxian ,Fan, Xuehua Li.
[4]. ―Classification of Transient Phenomena in Power Transformers Based on a Wavelet-ANN Approach ―A. Y. Abdelaziz Amr M. Ibrahim Electrical Power and Machines Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
[5]. ―A Current-Based Solution for Transformer Differential Protection—Part I: Problem Statement‖ Armando Guzmán, Member, IEEE , Stan Zocholl , Life Fellow, IEEE , Gabriel Benmouyal , Member, IEEE , and Héctor J. Altuve, Senior Member, IEEE5.

Paper Title :: NEURO-FUZZY INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATION: A BRIEF REVIEW AND FUTURE OUTLINE
Author Name :: MANJUVANI.K.M || SEEMA SINGH
Country :: India
Page Number :: 102-107
This paper surveys Neuro fuzzy systems (NFS) development in biomedical field. Paper gives brief literature review of articles for last decade (2005-2015) which explores various Neuro Fuzzy System methodologies that have been developed during this period of time, their work done and deficiencies. Use of Neuro fuzzy integrated systems in various biomedical engineering applications is summarised. The paper concludes with a discussion of future usage of Neuro-Fuzzy systems in the area of biomedical engineering.
Keywods: Artificial neural networks. Neuro-fuzzy system, Methodologies, Literature review.
[1]. Samarjit Kar,Sujit Das, Pijush Kanti Ghosh, "Applications of neuro fuzzy systems: A brief review and future outline". Applied soft computing, Elsevier-2015, pages 243-259.
[2]. Filippo Amato, Alberto Lopez proposed, "Artificial neural networks in medical diagnosis", Journal of applied Biomedicine, Elsevier-2013, pages 47-58.
[3]. Tony Hao WU, Enid Wai Yung Kwong, "Biomedical application on predicting systolic Blood pressure using Neural Networks" IEEE First International conference on Big Data Computing Service and Applications , 2015.
[4]. Murat Karabatak, "A new classifier for breast cancer detection based on Naive Bayesian". Measurement, Elsevier-2015, pages 32-36.
[5]. William W Melek, Alireza Sadeghian, "A Neuro Fuzzy based Expert system for disease Diagnosis". IEEE-2005, \\'

Paper Title :: Gesture Based Smart Home Automation System Using Real Time Inputs
Author Name :: Chinmaya H G || Nithin kumar N || Sagar B || Vinay Raj K M || Rekha Murthy
Country :: India
Page Number :: 108-112
Home Automation technique is used to design and implement a remotely controlled, energy-efficient and highly scalable Smart Home with basic features that safeguard the residents' comfort and security. A Smart Home Automation system which uses Hand Gestures for disabled people to switch ON fans & lights of the house, power saving capabilities to switch ON lights only in presence of people, switch ON exterior lights based on light intensity is designed & developed. The system consists of a house network (sensors and appliance actuators and camera to respect controller; an Arduino microcontroller that communicates with a relay which is the user interface is used. Smart House uses video processing system and sensors, thus making it a cost-efficient hybrid system. Events can be programmed to be triggered under specific conditions, and this can have a great role in reducing the total energy consumed by some appliances. On the other hand, the system can suggest smart task scheduling. The scheduling algorithm presented is heuristic for the Resource-constrained-scheduling problem (RCPSP) with hybrid objective function merging both resource-leveling and weighted completion time considerations.
KEYWORDS: Arduino microcontroller, Resource constrained scheduling problem (RCPSP),Smart Home Automation system .
[1]. https://www.quora.com/Disability-and-Disabilities/What-are-the-biggest-problems-which-physically-challenged-people face-in-their-day-to-day-life
[2]. Book : Understanding Energy Challenges in India by International Energy Agency
[3]. K. Irie, K. Umeda and N. Wakamura, "Construction of an Intelligent Room Based on Gesture Recognition," in 2004
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Sandai, Japan, Oct 2004, pp 193-198.
[4]. A Guide to MATLAB: For Beginners and Experienced Users, Book by Brian R. Hunt, Jonathan Rosenberg, and Ronald L. Lipsma
[5]. http://in.mathworks.com/discovery/matlab-gui.html

Paper Title :: Avenues for Regression Testing of Applications when run in Cloud: A need
Author Name :: NARASIMHA MURTHY M S || SUMA V
Country :: India
Page Number :: 113-116
It is universally accepted fact that, software has become the most important aspect of every application. Due to globalization and scientific revolutions technology has brought in major changes to run the applications in industries. Cloud is one such evidence to prove the above claim. However, sustaining the desired quality level of applications demands efficiently testable schemes. This paper therefore, put forth the need for modified regression testing of applications when run in cloud based environments.
KEYWORDS: Software engineering, software testing, cloud technology, software quality, regression testing.
[1]. David Mitchell Smith, David W. Cearley, Daryl C. Plummer "Key Issues for Cloud Computing", 2009
Gartner Research, pp.2-9, dated: 3 Feb 2009/ID Number. G00165185.
[2]. Tauhida Parveen, Scott Tilley "When to Migrate Software Testing to the Cloud", Third International
Conference on Software Testing, Verification, and Validation Workshops (ICST 2010), pp.424-427, dated: April 7-9, 2010, Paris, France, doi: 10.1109/ICSTW .2010.77.
[3]. Ananth B,"Testing Cloud and testing using Cloud", published by Sonata Software Ltd, URL: www.sonata- software.com/export/sites/Sonata/Cloud_Testing.pdf.
[4]. Leah Muthoni Riungu, Ossi Taipale, Kari Smolander" Research Issues for Software Testing in the Cloud", 2nd IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom), pp.557-564, dated: 30 Nov – 03 Dec 2010, Indiana University, USA, doi:10.1109/CloudCom.com2010.58.
[5]. Wang Jun, Fanpeng Meng,"Software testing based on cloud computing", 2011 International Conference on Internet Computing and Information Services (ICICIS 2011), pp.176-178, dated:Sept 17-18 2011,HongKong,doi: 10.1109/ICICIS.2011.51.

Paper Title :: Implementation of Optimized ALU for Digital System Applications using Partial Reconfiguration
Author Name :: NAVEEN K H || Dr. JAMUNA S || BASAVARAJ H
Country :: India
Page Number :: 117-123
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is an essential building block of any Central Processing Unit (CPU). Modern CPU's perform multiple operations which results in complex ALU design. This motivated us to design and implement an optimized ALU using partial reconfiguration. Partial Reconfiguration is well-defined as the ability of a single system to get reconfigured to accomplish numerous applications. Newer Xilinx FPGAs (few Spartan & Virtex series) offers the opportunities to be reconfigured by Partial Reconfiguration (PR) technique. The internal blocks of the ALU designed in this paper includes Adder, Subtractor, multiplier, shifter and Logical Block. The performance with respect to area and delay constraints is evaluated. The simulation results obtained validate the proposed concept.
KEYWORDS: Arithmetic Logic Unit, Central Processing Unit, Field programmable gate arrays, Partial Reconfiguration.
[1]. Xilinx, Inc. "Partial Reconfiguration User Guide." Xilinx UG702. July 6, 2011.
http://www.xilinx.com/support/documentation/sw_manuals/xilinx13_2/ug702.pdf
[2]. Farid Lahrach, Abderrahim Doumar and Eric Chatelet,"Fault Tolerance of SRAM-based FPGA Via Configuration Frames", Design and Diagnostics of Electronic circuits and Systems (DDECS), IEEE 14th International Symposium, on page(s): 139 – 142, Print ISBN: 978-1-4244-9755-3, April 2011.
[3]. Akshay dhenge, Abhilash kapse, Sandip kakde, "VLSI Implementation of Area Optimized ALU using GDI Technique", Proceedings of International Conference on Research in Electrical, Electronics & Mechanical Engineering, Dehradun, 26th April-2014, ISBN: 978-93-84209-11-7.
[4]. Kunal Yogeshkumar Parikh, "Detailed Design Flow for Partial Reconfiguration", International Journal of Combined Research & Development (IJCRD) eISSN:2321-225X;pISSN:2321-2241 Volume: 2; Issue: 2; February – 2014.
[5]. Maysam Sarfaraz, "Educational Applications of Partial Reconfiguration of FPGAs", The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Tennessee, May 2011

Paper Title :: DESIGN OF FREQUENCY RECONFIGURABLE ANTENNA FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION
Author Name :: Vinutha B || Nikky Kumari || Rakshitha.v || Bhavana.B
Country :: India
Page Number :: 124-128
The development of smart antennas for mobile phones has recently received much interest due to compact size of multimode phones and requirements to keep the amount of RF power absorbed by a user below a certain level. In this paper a Yagi Uda shaped Frequency Reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna is presented. The proposed reconfigurable antenna has four patches designed to cover the frequency band from 1.9Ghz to 2.4Ghz .The antenna exhibits the property of change in frequency which results in change in return loss characteristics depending upon the configuration request. The frequency reconfiguration capability of antenna is achieved with the help of PIN diode which acts as a switch to reconfigure the antenna. Small rectangular patches have been inserted to act like switches to obtain reconfigurability. The antenna is simulated on Ansoft HFSS software. The simulated results give return loss lower than -6dB and VSWR below 2.5.
KEYWORDS: Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna, Mobile Antenna, Patch Antenna, Yagi Uda Antenna
[1]. David A. Sánchez Hernández, Multiband Integrated Antennas for 4G Terminals, Artech House, 2008.
[2]. Zhi Ning Chen, Antennas for Portable Devices, John Wiley & Sons Ltd 2007.
[3]. R. Garg, P. Bhartia, I. Bahl and A. Ittipiboon, Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook, Boston, USA: Artech House, 2001.
[4]. K. Hirasawa and M. Haneishi, Analysis, design andmeasurement of small and low-profile antennas, ArtechHouse, Boston, 1992.
[5]. J.T. Rowley and R.B. Waterhouse, Performance of shortedmicrostrip patch antennas for mobile communicationshandsets at 1800 MHz, IEEE Trans Antennas Propagationvol.-47,pp. 815–822, 1999.

Paper Title :: Design and Implementation of Cascade H Bridge Multilevel Inverter
Author Name :: Praveen.B.R
Country :: India
Page Number :: 129-134
In this paper main focus is on the design and implementation of a new topology in a single phase seven level cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter by using only a seven switches and two DC power source. The main objective of this paper is to increase number of levels with a low number of switches and sources at the output without adding any complexity to the power circuit. The main merit of the new topology is to reduce the lower total harmonic distortion, lower electromagnetic interference generation and high output voltage. In this paper, various carrier pulse width modulation techniques are proposed, which can minimize the total harmonic distortion and enhances the output voltages from proposed work of seven level inverter. The various switching topologies of single-phase seven level cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverters have been analyzed in this paper. The simulation is done by Mat Lab 8.0 version software. [1] The control signals for power electronic switches are provided using different pulse width modulation modulated technique. Harmonic analysis carried out using Mat Lab 8.0 version software .It is proved that proposed work of Single phase seven level multilevel cascade inverter output voltage total harmonics distortion is reduced and improve the efficiency of system compare with different topologies of single phase seven level multilevel cascade inverter.
[1]. M.Kavitha, A.Arunkumar, N.Gokulnath, S.Arun" New Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter Topology With Reduced Number Of Switches And Sources" Iosr Journals Of Electrical And Electronics Engineering Issn: 2278-1676 Volume 2, Issue 6 (Sep-Oct. 2012), Pp 26-36
[2]. Vinayaka B.C, S.Nagendra Prasad "Modeling and Design of Five Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter with Dc/Dc Boost Converter" Vinayaka B.C Int. Journal Of Engineering Research And Applications ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 6(Version 5), June 2014, pp.50-55
[3]. P.Iraianbu, M. Sivakumar "A Single Dc Source Based Cascaded H-Bridge 5 Level Inverter" International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology ISSN (Online): 2319 – 8753 ISSN (Print): 2347 – 6710Volume 3, Special Issue 1, February 2014
[4]. Divya Subramanian, Rebiya Rashee " Five Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter Using Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation Technique" International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) ISSN: 2277-3754 Volume 3, Issue 1, July 2013
[5]. M.S. Sivagamasundari, Dr.P. Melba Mary "Analysis of Cascaded Five Level Multilevel Inverter Using Hybrid Pulse Width Modulation" International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering ISSN 2250-2459 Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2013

Paper Title :: MEMS MICROPHONE SENSOR FOR DEFENSE APPLICATIONS
Author Name :: Priyanka Ashok Kamthane || Dr R Sundaraguru
Country :: India
Page Number :: 135-139
A Directional microphone is a device which has the intelligence to sense the direction of the acoustic pressure falling on its diaphragm. In this work MEMS directional microphone inspired by Ormia ochracea fly has been designed and simulated. The Directional microphone with comb structures are designed using SOIMUMPS process and simulated to know the impact of structures on sensitivity; frequency response. The symmetric solid wing directional microphone is designed of different thickness for defense applications. In this work will be looking in detail on the design aspects of different directional microphone structures and comparison of their sensitivities to obtain the Directional microphone structure with best sensitivity. The frequency responses vary from 22 kHz to 26 kHz for 30um thickness of device 30um and 13 kHz to 17 kHz for 15 um thickness of device. The fabrication of this device is carried out using SOIMUMPs process using CoventorWare tool.
KEYWORDS: MEMS Microphone, Microstructure, high sensitivity.
[1]. Robert D., Miles, R.N., and Hoy R.R., "Mechanically coupled ears for directional hearing in the parasitoid Ormia ochracea fly." The journal of Acoustical Society of America, 98 December 1995, pp. 3059-3070.
[2]. TAKAHASHI, Akira NABA, Akira SUZUKI, Minh Dung NGUYEN, EIJIIWASE, Kiyoshi MATSUMOTO, Isao SHIMOYAMA "Sound directional sensor with an acoustic channel" IEEE 23rd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS' 10) January 25-28, 2010, Hong Kong, China pp. 655-658.
[3]. Yeshashwini L.Reddy, Ramanuja H.S, Veda Sandeep Nagaraja, S.L. Pinjare, "Design and simulation of piezoelectric MEMS microphone." 2012-2013.
[4]. Miao yu and Haijun Liu "Fly-ear inspired miniaturized acoustic sensor" The 6th International workshop on Smart Materials and Smart Structure Technology. July 25-26, 2011.
[5]. B. Azizollah Ganji, B. Yeop Majlis, "Fabrication and characterization of a new MEMS capacitive microphone using perforated diaphragm", 2008, IJE Transactions - Vol. 22, No. 2, December 11, pp. 153-160.

Paper Title :: Identification Faults on Transmission Line by using Phasor Measurement Unit (PMUs)
Author Name :: Mr. K Raghunath Reddy || Dr. R V Parimala
Country :: India
Page Number :: 140-144
The phenomenal growth of power system network both in terms of geographical sprawl as well as technological advancements, it requires tools for dealing with the system, wide disturbances that often cause widespread catastrophic blackouts in power system networks. When a major disturbance occurs, protection and control measures play the most important role to prevent further degradation of the system, to restore the system back to a normal state and minimize the impact of the disturbance. Continuous technological innovations in information and communication technology, novel sensors and measurement principles in general have promoted the advent of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs). This paper describes the modelling and testing of Phasor Measurement Unit for two bus transmission line system for identification faults(like LG fault) using MATLAB/Simulink. Since PMUs are costly device therefore module wise testing and analysis are essential. For such modelling and testing, software based analysis is the best approach. This has been done through MATLAB and the results were analysed.
Keywords: PMU, LG Fault, MATLAB.
[1]. A.G.Phadke, "Synchronized phasor measurement in power systems," IEEE Comput. Appl. Power, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 10–15, Apr. 1993. [J.Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed., vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892, pp.68-73
[2]. Jaime De La Ree, Virgilio Centeno, James S. Thorp and A.G Phadke, "Synchronized Phasor Measurement Applications in Power System", IEEE Transaction on Smart Grid, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 20-27, June 2010
[3]. A.G. Phadke and J.S. Thorp, Synchronized Phasor Measurements and their Applications, Springer, 2008.
[4]. A.G.Phadke and J.S Thorp. "History and Applications of Phasor Measurements", IEEE Power Systems Conference and Exposition, PSCE '06, Atlanta, GA, pp. 331 - 335 , October 29 -November 1, 2006.

Paper Title :: MEMS HYDROPHONE SENSOR FOR LOW FREQUENCY DETECTION
Author Name :: Sachin V || Dr R Sundaraguru
Country :: India
Page Number :: 145-148
MEMS Cylindrical Hydrophone is a vectored hydrophone which uses Piezoresistive effect to detect low frequency. The structure consist of four beam microstructure and a cylinder which has same density of water. The entire structure is placed in symmetry with respect to x and y plane. The model is built using COMSOL. Wheatstone bridge circuit is used as read out circuitry. Experimental results shows that frequency response vary from 20Hz to 3 KHz with an added advantage of small size and high sensitivity. The fabrication of this structure is carried out using silicon based MEMS technology.
KEYWORDS: Vectored Hydrophone, Microstructure, and high sensitivity.
[1]. Bin xie, HuiQiao, ChwbyangXue, Shang Chen, and Binzen Zhang, "A novel MEMS based Piezoresistive vector hydrophone for low frequency detection", 2007 IEEE , International conference on mechatronics and automation.
[2]. Zhang Wendong, XiongJijun, Wang Panpan, Zhang Guojan, GujonLinggang, "Improvement of the bionic MEMS vector hydrophone", volume 42, issue 5, microelectronics journal.
[3]. Wen-Dong Zhang, Shi e yang, Shujaan Wu, Chen Yang Xue, Zhen Li, Guo Jun Zhang, "A fish Cilia Median low frequency three dimensional Piezoresistive vector hydrophone", Nano micro 2014.
[4]. HuiQiao, Guojun Zhang, Wendong Zhang, Shang Chen, ChangyangXue, " Design , fabrication and characterization of novel MEMS vector hydrophone", journal 38, microelectronics, 2007.
[5]. Peng Zhao, Wendong Zhang, Guojan Zhang, "Resonant frequency of the silicon micro structure of MEMS vector hydrophone in fluid structure", 5, AIP advances.

Paper Title :: Remote Sensing Technology
Author Name :: Sathya Ganesh Sharma R || K Kaushik Devaiah || MayankHasmukh Bhai Patel || Nihal R Mandi || Thyagaraj T
Country :: India
Page Number :: 149-156
We perceive the surrounding world through our five senses. However, we acquire much information about our surrounding through the senses of sight and hearing which do not require close contact between the sensing organs and the external objects. In another words, we are performing Remote Sensing all the time. To understand Satellite Remote Sensing, we need to know the basic concepts of satellite orbit, swaths, resolution, how EM radiation interacts with different targets and the different types of remote sensing. Besides these, we need to know the different type of sensors that can be used and also how data is handled. The problem of space debris needs to be addressed and what are the applications of remote sensing and its future.
KEYWORDS: Remote sensing, Remote sensing satellite, Remote sensing technology, Space Debrif
[1]. Navalgund, R. R., and K. Kasturirangan. "The Indian remote sensing satellite: a programme overview."Sadhana (Academy Proceedings in Engineering Sciences). Vol. 6. No. 4. Indian Academy of Sciences, 1983.
[2]. Paul R. Baumann, State University of New York HISTORY OF REMOTE SENSING, SATELLITE IMAGERY
[3]. Fundamentals of Remote Sensing – Canada Centre for remote sensing
[4]. Hallada, Wayne A., and Scott Cox. "Image sharpening for mixed spatial and spectral resolution satellite systems." International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 17th, Ann Arbor, MI. 1983.
[5]. Richards, John A., and J. A. Richards. Remote sensing digital image analysis. Vol. 3. Berlin et al.: Springer, 1999.

Paper Title :: Edge Preserving Single Image Super Resolution Techniques– A Comprehensive Study
Author Name :: Seema S Bhat || Dr.M.C.Hanumantharaju
Country :: India
Page Number :: 157-164
High-Resolution (HR) images play vital role in almost every aspect of day-to-day life. The spatial resolution and the quality of the images can be improved with help of Super Resolution (SR) techniques. It rebuilds a HR image from one or multiple Low- Resolution (LR) images. During the application of these Super Resolution (SR) methods, some intricate details in the given low resolution image may be lost. Minute details preservation is essential in areas like medical imaging. This paper makes an attempt to review some of the state of the art single image edge preservation super resolution techniques. The current comprehensive survey classifies SR methods broadly into interpolation based, reconstruction based and learning based methods. Interpolation based methods are straight forward, but ends with producing blurred details and ringing artefacts. Reconstruction based methods are fast, but suffer with optimized parameters setting which are required for fine tuning of the output. Learning based methods involves construction of large image dictionaries. Though training these dictionaries consumes more time and complicated, learning based methods yield better quality images. Electing and designing a proper SR technique can be a real challenge for the researcher. However, assimilation of these methods are always proved to elicit better result.
KEYWORDS: Edge preserving, Interpolation, Learning based, Reconstruction, Single Image Super Resolution
[1]. Nasrollahi, K., & Moeslund, T. B. ,Super-resolution: a comprehensive survey. Machine vision and applications, 25(6),2014,1423-1468.
[2]. H. S. Hou and H. C. Andrews, Cubic spline for image interpolation and digital filtering, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 26,1978,508–517.
[3]. S. Dai, M. Han,W. Xu, Y.Wu, and Y. Gong, Soft edge smoothness prior for alpha channel super resolution, IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Classification (CVPR), 2007, 1–8.
[4]. J. Sun, Z. Xu, and H. Shum, Image super-resolution using gradient profile prior, IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2008, 1–8.
[5]. X.Li, M.T. Orchard, New edge- directed interpolation, IEEE Transaction on. Image Procesings,10(10),2001,1521–1527.

Paper Title :: IMPLENTATION OF VOICE CONTROLLED ROBOT USING ANDROID APPLICATION
Author Name :: Mamatha K R || Shalini Ragothaman || Krithika Raj D || Susmi Zacharia || Anusha N
Country :: India
Page Number :: 165-168
This paper proposes a system where the human voice is a main source to control devices. With the help of an android smartphone application, human voice commands are recognised and these commands are then processed to achieve the corresponding control of any real world device. This system is a prototype of a voice controlled wheelchair-where voice commands can be effectively used to control the movement of a wheelchair. By the simple use of an efficient control system utilising the Arduino microcontroller board, the HC-05 Bluetooth module and an easy user interface based android smartphone voice application, the control of the robot is achieved. Results show that it is indeed possible to efficiently manipulate and automate real world activities with only voice (human voice) as a control mechanism.
Keywords: Voice command, Bluetooth, Android Interface, Arduino
[1]. Mohammad Asgar, Mirz, Badra, Khan Irshad ,Shaikh AftabAutomated Innovative wheelchair [2]. XiaolingLvMinglu Zhang, Hui Li, "Robot Control Based on Voice Command", International Conference on Automation and Logistics, 2490-2494, 2008.
[3]. Yaakov Stein, "Recent Advances in Speech Recognition", Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, 1995.
[4]. F.A.Himmelstoss, O.Amtmann, "DC motor drive with high torque at low speeds", EUROCON International Conference on Computer as a Tool, 20
[5]. Android Developers Guide. Android Architecture. 2013. :http://.android.com/about/versions/index.html.

Paper Title :: MAGNETICALLY LEVITATED VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE WITH INVERTER DESIGN
Author Name :: Manjunatha Babu P || Sagar || Pavan Kumar C R || Sharath Chandra V C || Praveen Kumar
Country :: India
Page Number :: 169-174
This paper dwells on the implementation of an alternate configuration of a wind turbine for power generation purposes. Using the effects of magnetic repulsion, spiral shaped wind- turbine blades will be fitted on a rod for stability during rotation and suspended on magnets as a replacement for ball bearings which are normally used on conventional wind turbines. Power will then be generated with an axial flux generator, which incorporates the use of permanent magnets and a set of coils. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a magnetically levitated vertical axis wind turbine system that has the ability to operate in both low and high (1.5m/s to 40m/s) wind speed conditions. This new model of wind turbine uses magnetic levitation to reduce the internal friction of the rotor which is considered as a revolution in the field of wind technology, producing 20% more energy than a conventional turbine, at the same time decreasing operational costs by 50% over the traditional wind turbine. Hence this technology provides an extreme efficient, versatile and elegant method of producing power from wind with nearly zero pollution. Our choice for this model is to showcase its efficiency in varying wind conditions as compared to the traditional horizontal axis wind turbine and contribute to its steady growing popularity for the purpose of mass utilization in the near future as a reliable source of power generation. Hence the main objective of this paper is to harness wind energy in more efficient way with frictionless magnetic levitated operation.
[1]. Erich Hau "Wind Turbines: Fundamentals, Technologies, Application, Economics" Springer Publishers, 2005.
[2]. C Strojan"Environmental and Aesthetic Assessment of Small Wind EnergySystems" Paperback Publishers, 1985.
[3]. Paul Gipe "Wind Energy Comes of Age (Wiley Series in SustainableDesign)",Hardcover Publishers,1995.
[4]. Thomas E Kissell "Introduction to Wind principles", Pearson education, 2002.
[5]. Z. Zhang, A. Verma, and A. Kusiak, "Fault Analysis of the Wind Turbine Gearbox", IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2012, pp. 526-535 [Wind energy].

Paper Title :: Spread Spectrum Coded OFDM chirp waveform Scheme For RADAR Application
Author Name :: Spoorthy P || Jayalaxmi H
Country :: India
Page Number :: 175-180
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) is a genuine multiplexing method with its application in the area of wideband digital communication. The Sub-carriers in the system are exploited for data transmission. Preserving the orthogonality of the waveforms till it reaches the receiver is a must. Chirp waveform is used in OFDM modulation and then it is spread spectrum coded to obtain a new waveform diversity design. Earlier methods for waveform diversity design were also proposed. But the proposed techniques faced problems. They only gave satisfactory performance pertaining to target detection, they also suffered with loss of orthogonality as they are propagated. Hence there was a need for the novel method of waveform design, that is done with the combination of DSSS, chirp signal, and OFDM. Here the interpretation regarding the efficiency of designed waveforms is done upon investigating ambiguity function plot.
KEYWORDS: Ambiguity function, Chirp Waveform, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, Spread Spectrum coding, Waveform Diversity
[1] Jung-Hyo Kim, Marwan Younis, Alberto Moreria,IEEE members "A Novel OFDM Chirp Waveform Scheme for use of Multiple Transmitters in SAR" , IEEE May 2013
[2] Wen-Qin, Longting Huang, Yuan Chen, Chengdu," Low Peak-to-Avereage Ratio OFDM Chirp Waveform Diversity Design", IEEE 2014
[3] Robert Calderbank, Stephen D. Howard, and Bill Moran, " Waveform sensing-Agile processing", IEEE Signal processing 2009
[4] Rajni Billa, Javed Ashraf, "Analysis of Chirp Spread Spectrum System for Multiple Access", IJERT 2012
[5] Wen-Qin Wang, " An Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Radar Waveform with a Large Time-bandwidth Product", Defence Science Journal-2012

Paper Title :: Design and Analysis of Low-Power Arithmetic Logic Unit using GDI Technique
Author Name :: Ms. Shreeyutha R
Country :: India
Page Number :: 181-191
The ALU is the most important component of central processing unit and this is also used in microprocessors and embedded systems. In this, ALU consists of full adder , 4bit multiplexer, 2bit and sometimes 8bit multiplexer(if necessary) and is designed to implement logic operations, such as AND, EXOR, EXNOR,OR, etc. and arithmetic operations, as INCREMENT, DECREMENT ADD and SUBTRACT. A design of a 4-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU) by taking the advantage of the concept of gate diffusion input (GDI) technique. GDI cells are used in the design of full adders and multiplexers which are used to realize ALU. The main objective of the project is to implement an arithmetic logic unit and to reduce the total power of the circuitry by using new technique called GDI(gate diffusion input) Technique. The simulation is carried out in Xilinx and Cadence virtuoso. The Simulation shows that the design is implemented with less power that is 17.08nW and this is very less as compared to 1.122mW (lector technique).
KEYWORDS: Lector, GDI, CPL, TFA, SERF, MTCMOS, Domino Logic, Propagation delay and Power Optimization.
[1]. Anu, Shilpa Goyal; Department of Electronics Engineering, YMCA University, Faridabad, Haryana; "A Literature Review on Leakage and Power Reduction Techniques in CMOS VLSI Design", International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication, ISSN: 2321-8169, Volume:3 Issue: 2.
[2]. Kunal & Nidhi Kedia ; Dhenkanal, Odisha; "GDI Technique : A Power-Efficient Method for Digital Circuits"., ISSN (Print): 2278-8948, Volume-1, Issue-3, 2012.
[3]. T. Esther Rani, M. Asha Rani and Dr. Rameshwar rao, "Area optimized Low-power Arithmetic logic unit", 978-1-4244-8679-3/11/2011 IEEE.
[4]. K. Chang, S. Huang, "The novel efficient design of XOR/XNOR function for full adder applications", IEEE international conference on Electronics. Circuits and Systems, 1999.
[5]. Singh, Jyoti Budakoti, India, "Energy Efficient Advanced Low Power CMOS Design to reduce power consumption in Submicron Technologies in CMOS Circuit for VLSI Design", Int. Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Communication Engineering, Vol. 3, Issue 6, June 2014.

Paper Title :: HYBRID FILTER OF SOBEL AND PREWITT
Author Name :: SRISHTI P || TRIPTI VERMA || PRASHANT A A
Country :: India
Page Number :: 192-196
Chest problems such as heart failure, lung cancer, lung tuberculosis etc. are often detected by doctors by carefully analyzing the Chest X-Ray images (CXR) and while doing the same they may have to go through the reports of large number of patients which is a tedious process and also time consuming. In order to overcome this problem an automated system known as CAD(computer aided diagnosis) has been adopted where in the suspected areas on the x-ray reports are marked and sent to the doctors for further analysis[3]. But the main drawback of this system is that nodules hidden behind rib bones are not detected which leads to lack of proper information. To avoid this problem the rib cage of different X-ray images have to be suppressed so that nodules hidden behind the ribs are clearly seen and only those images containing nodules are sent to the doctors while the ones without any are rejected by the system[5] . Furthermore, to suppress the rib cage, first edges of the ribs have to be detected and to achieve this we have proposed a hybrid filter which is the combination of Prewitt and Sobel digital filters.
Keywords: Kernels, hybrid, detection, pixels
[1]. International Journal of Computer Sci& Information Technology (IJCSIT), Vol 3, No 2, April 2011
[2]. Digital Image Processing and analysis human and computer vision applications with cviptools second edition scott eumbaugh
[3]. Detection & Classification of Lung Nodules Using multi resolution MTANN in Chest Radiography Images Sridhar. R, Saravanakumar. S
[4]. E. Argyle. "Techniques for edge detection," Proc. IEEE, vol. 59, pp. 285-286, 1971
[5]. An X-ray CAD system with ribcage suppression for improved detection of lung lesions Áron Horváth / Gergely Orbán / Ákos Horváth / Gábor Horváth

Paper Title :: Robust Lexicographical Ordering of Images: A Survey
Author Name :: Sumalatha A || Devaraja S || Prathima V R
Country :: India
Page Number :: 197-208
Lexicographical ordering approach correlates the pixel values and reconstructs the correlation to a new color space that is essential for human perception. A vector represents a pixel in color space and vectorial ordering is required for comparison between the vectors. In this paper, a Robust Lexicographical Ordering approach is proposed that overcomes the drawbacks of the existing approaches and arranges the component rank effectively that can be practically applied in various fields. Initially a trance of Robust Lexicographical Ordering is seen and later the results are analyzed in various applications such as noise devaluation and edge detection.
KEYWORDS: Robust Lexicographical Ordering, Vectorial Ordering, Edge Detection, Noise Devaluation
[1]. E. Aptoula, S. Lefevre, "A Comparative Study on Multivariate Mathematical Morphology" Pattern Recognition,Vol.40, No. 11, pp. 2914-2929, 2007.
[2]. J. Angulo, "Morphological Colour Operators in Totally Ordered Lattices Based on Distances: Application to Image Filtering Enhancement and Analysis" Computer Vision and Image Understanding, Vol. 107, No. 1-2, pp. 56-73, 2007.
[3]. X. Benavent, E. Dura, F. Vegara, J. Domingo, "Mathematical Morphology for Color Images: An Image-Dependent Approach. Mathematical Problems in Engineering," Vol. 2012, Article ID 678326, 18 pages, 2012.
[4]. G. Louverdis, M.I. Vardavoulia, I. Andreadis, Ph. Tsalides, "A New Approach to Morphological Color Image Processing,"Pattern Recognition, Vol. 35, No. 8, pp. 1733-1741, 2002.
[5]. N. Nikolaidis and I. Pitas, "Multichannel L Filters Based On Reduced Ordering," Circuits and Systems for Video Technology",Vol. 6, No. 5, pp. 470-482, 1996.

Paper Title :: GSM BASED ENERGY METER AND BILLING VIA SMS
Author Name :: Rachitha.G || Raushan Kumar || Srilakshmi.S || Koustubh Mishra || Suma Umesh
Country :: India
Page Number :: 209-212
The technology of e-metering (Electronic Metering) has gone through rapid technological advancements and there is increased demand for a reliable and efficient Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) system. The proposed system replaces traditional meter reading methods and enables remote access of existing energy meter by the energy provider. They can also monitor the meter readings regularly without the person visiting each house. After processing the collected data, bill is generated and using web based system software it is sent back to the customer as SMS.
KEYWORDS: EEPROM, Energy Meter,GSM modem, Microcontroller 8051, RFID.
[1]. YujunBao and Xiaoyan Jiang, "Design of electric Energy Meter for long-distance data information transfers which based upon GPRS", ISA 2009. International Workshop on Intelligent Systems and Applications, 2009.
[2]. H.G.RodneyTan,C.H. Lee,V.H.Mok,"Automatic power meter reading system using GSM network", The 8th International Power Engineering Conference (IPEC 2007).
[3]. Vivek Kumar Sehgal,Nitesh Panda, NipunRaiHanda, "Electronic Energy Meter with instant billing",UKSim Fourth European Modelling Symposium on Computer Modelling and Simulation.
[4]. Bharath P, Ananth N, Vijetha S, JyothiPrakash K. V., "Wireless automated digital Energy Meter", ICSET 2008.
[5]. P.K. Lee and L.L. Lai, Fieee, "A practical approach to wireless GPRS on-line power quality monitoring system", Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2007.

Paper Title :: A Comparison of Canny, Robert edge detection filters and their superposition
Author Name :: Swetha. R || Veena. N || Prashant A Athavale
Country :: India
Page Number :: 213-218
Edge detection technique is one of the most commonly used operations in image analysis particularly in the areas of image segmentation. An edge represents the boundary between an object and the image background, hence if high accuracy edges are identified in an image then all its objects can be located and an image's basic property can also be measured [1]. An edge can also be defined as a group of pixels connected together which forms a boundary between two disconnected regions can also be defined as an edge. Edge detection is basic method of segmenting an image into different regions of discontinuity. Edges are considered for prime importance in image processing as they characterize boundaries. Edge detection filters out noise and useless data while preserving the important structural properties in an image. Since edge detection is in the front line of image processing for object detection [2], it is necessary to have a good understanding of edge detection methods. In this paper a comparison of Canny, Robert Image Edge Detection methods and their superposition approach are presented. This comparative study shows which among the above approach provides a better result.
General Terms: Filters, Hybrid filters, Edge detection, Robert Filter, Canny Filter, Intensity Gradients Keywords: Canny, Laplacian, Robert
[1]. Algorithm And Implementation Of Distributed Canny Edge Detector On FPGA Aravindh G. and Manikandababu C. S. Vol 10, No 7 , April 2011 ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
[2]. Performance Evaluation of Edge Detection Techniques for Images in Spatial Domain. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 5, December, 2009 1793-8201 . Mamta Juneja , Parvinder Singh Sandhu
[3]. A New Programming and Mathematical Approach to Improve the Edge Detection of Brighter Images : Kalyan Kumar Jena. Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2015. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering
[4]. An Analysis of Edge Detectors and Improved Hybrid Technique for Edge Detection of Images :Mamta. Juneja, and Parvinder S. Sandhu. International Journal of Computer Science and Electronics Engineering (IJCSEE) Volume 1, Issue 4 (2013) ISSN 2320-401X; EISSN 2320-4028
[5]. Raman Maini & Dr. Himanshu Aggarwal : International Journal of Image Processing (IJIP), Volume (3) : Issue (1) 1 Study and Comparison of Various Image Edge Detection Techniques

Paper Title :: Design and Implementation of Weil Sequence and LDPC Codes
Author Name :: Rajagopal A || Vedha S
Country :: India
Page Number :: 219-224
CDMA is a digital wireless technology that makes use of spread spectrum technique to access the communication channel.This paper presents Weil pseudo random noise sequence and LDPC error control coding technique. A base band signal communication system is been designed using Weil pseudo random noise sequence as spreading sequence and LDPC error control coding technique as channel encoder and decoder. The entire system is realised using System generator.
KEYWORDS: CDMA, GNSS, LDPC error control coding, LDPC simplified soft distance decoding, PRN sequence, Weil sequence.
[1]. Shuanggen Jin, Global Navigation Satellite Systems- Signal, Theory and Applications (Published by InTech, Janeza, Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia, 2012).
[2]. J. J. Rushanan, "Weil Sequences: A Family of Binary Sequences with Good Correlation Properties," in IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Seattle, WA, pp. 1648 – 1652, 2006.
[3]. Jorge Castiñeira Moreira, Patrick Guy Farrell,essentials of error-control coding (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England).
[4]. Yong-Hwan Lee and Seung-Jun Kim, "Sequence Acquisition of DS-CDMA Systems Employing Gold Sequences",IEEE Transactions On Vehicular Technology, Vol. 49, No. 6, November 2000 2397.
[5]. Robert G Galleger,Low density parity check codes, Cambrige, Mass., July 1963.

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