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Current Issue [Vol. 04, No. 08] [August 2018]

Paper Title :: Addenda to Criticism of the Current Science in the World
Author Name :: Pejman Malekinejad
Country :: Iran
Page Number :: 01-04
I have published a paper [1] in which I have mentioned some scientific problems of Iran. This article is as Addenda to that paper. Therefore, some scientific problems of Iran in the field of oil and gas, metallurgy, corrosion, welding, water management and drought, medicine and missiles were reviewed. As a result, it was concluded that Iran will not become anything in the science. Finally, it was suggested that the only way for the scientific advancement of Iran in all fields is to regard Iran as a state of United State of America country.
Keywords:Oil and Gas, Metallurgy, Drought, Missile, Corrosion Coatings, Welding Filler Metals
[1]. Pejman Malekinejad, “Criticism of the Current Science in the World”, Oil and Gas Research, Open Access, OMICS International, ISSN: 2472-0518, Volume 3, Issue 2, 100141, August 2017, DOI: 10.4172/2472-0518.1000141.
[2]. https://ir.voanews.com/a/iran-sepah-military/3933992.html
[3]. http://www.iran-resist.org/article5591.html
[4]. https://www.isna.ir/news/96071910618/%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%B5%D9%84%D9%87-%DB%B1%DB%B0-%D8%AF%D8%B1%D8%B5%D8%AF%DB%8C-%D8%B6%D8%B1%DB%8C%D8%A8-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B2%DB%8C%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%AA-%D9%86%D9%81%D8%AA-%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%A8%D8%A7-%D9%85%DB%8C%D8%A7%D9%86%DA%AF%DB%8C%D9%86-%D8%AC%D9%87%D8%A7%D9%86%DB%8C
[5]. http://www.keytosteel.com/en/

Paper Title :: An Empirical Analysis of Effect on Copper Futures Yield Based on GARCH
Author Name :: Feng Li || Ping Xiao
Country :: China
Page Number :: 05-10
This paper firstly sorts out the domestic research literature on copper futures, points out their contribution and shortcomings, and then selects the copper futures closing price data from 2009-2018 to May 31 (data from Shanghai Futures) Exchange), using Eviews software to process the data, and obtain a line graph of copper futures yield, indicating that the yield is stable, and there will be more obvious fluctuations at the end of the year; the histogram of the rate of return and related statistics Quantity, which proves that the copper futures yield series is not a normal distribution. The autocorrelation and partial correlation coefficient plots show that there are no autocorrelation and partial correlation problems in the sequence. In addition, based on the GARCH model learned, it is concluded that the copper futures yield does have a GARCH effect.
KeywordsCopper futures; GARCH; effect yield; stability
[1]. Song Bo, Xing Tiancai. Comparative Study on the Influence of China's Shanghai Copper and Lun Copper and New York Copper Market——Based on the Analysis of Dynamic Relationship between Price Discovery and Spillover Effect[J]. Price Theory and Practice, 2018(03):127 -130.
[2]. Sun Huiling. Research on Dynamic Hedging Ratio of Shanghai Copper Futures Based on GARCH-COPULA Model[J].Journal of Tonghua Teachers College,2017,38(02):30-32+45.
[3]. Wang Wei. Research on Risk Measurement of Shanghai Copper Futures Market——Based on GARCH VaR Model [J]. Chinese and Foreign Entrepreneurs, 2016(27): 4-6
[4]. Zhao Ruiqi. Analysis of China's copper futures price fluctuation characteristics based on GARCH family model [D]. Jilin University, 2015.
[5]. Liu Yujian. Analysis of the volatility spillover effect between China's copper, aluminum and rebar futures markets [D]. Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, 2017.

Paper Title :: The Analysis of ICBC Stock Based on ARMA-GARCH Model
Author Name :: Si-qin LIU || Hong-guo SUN
Country :: China
Page Number :: 11-16
This paper uses the time series analysis method and establishes the ARMA-GARCH model to analyze and predict the ICBC stock price, roughly determine the rationality of ICBC investment, and put forward the corresponding investment advice.
Keywords: ICBC; ARMA; GARCH; Volatility
[1]. Zhang Zhiqin, Jiang Wei, Yang Chunpeng. Analysis of Stock Market Volatility Basedon EGARCH Model[J].Journal of Qingdao University(Natural Science),2012,25(04):91-94.
[2]. Xu Hao. A Comparative Study on the Volatility of the Stock Prices of Two Listed Companies in the Same Stock Market: An Analysis of the TGARCH Model with ICBC as an Example[J]. Science and Technology Market, 2013(07):30-33.
[3]. Yang Qi,CAOXianbing. Stock Price Analysis and Forecast Based on ARMA-GARCH Model[J]. Mathematics in Practice and Theory, 2016, 46(06):80-86.
[4]. Fan Chuanzhi. Analysis of stock price volatility in China's commercial banks [D].Southwest Jiaotong University, 2012.
[5]. Meng Kun, Li Li. Empirical Analysis of Stock Price Prediction Based on ARMA Model[J]. Journal of Hebei North University(Natural Science Edition), 2016,32(05):55-60.

Paper Title :: Study on the Impact of Sino-US Trade War on Chinese Agricultural Commodities Futures
Author Name :: Chang-qing WANG || Hong-guo SUN
Country :: China
Page Number :: 17-26
The Sino-US trade war, which intensified fluctuations in the agricultural product futures market and affects everyone’s normal life, would definitely has an impact on the agricultural product futures market under the exchange rate connection between two parties. This paper uses corn and cotton as examples to analyze the impact of exchange rate. The results show that there is a two-way causal relationship between exchange rate and corn, while one-way between exchange rate and cotton. In the long run, there is a balance between the exchange rate, corn and cotton. In the short term, the variance decomposition shows the exchange rate contributes to corn and cotton for 10.6% and 15.0% respectively, indicating that exchange rate fluctuations affect the prices of corn and cotton futures, and then will influence the spot prices of corn and cotton through the transmission mechanism.
Keywords: VAR model; trade war; exchange rate fluctuates; corn price fluctuation; cotton price fluctuation
[1]. XueRongjiu,YangFengming.Thecharacteristics,harm and countermeasures of trade protectionism under the global financial crisis[J].International Economics and Trade Research,2009,25(11):4-7.
[2]. Richard Baldwin,and Simon Evenett.In the Collapse of GlobleTrade,Murkyprotectionism,and the Crisis:Recommendations for the G20,A VaxEU.org Publication,2009.
[3]. Krzysztof Pelc,and Christina Davis.Cooperation in Hard Times:Self---Restraint of Trade Protection,American Political Science Association Annual Meeting,2011.
[4]. Chen Yongfu,HeXiurong,YuFawen: Analysis of the Causes of the SinoJapanese Vegetable Trade War and Countermeasures [J].World Economic Research,2001 (04): 84-89.
[5]. Qin Yi,Ni Yan: Research on the Asymmetry of the Exchange Rate Mechanism of RMB Exchange Rate for Agricultural Products[J].Agricultural Technology & Economy,2013,(1):58-67.

Paper Title :: The impact of mechanised stirring and scraping operations in a coffee and cocoa beans drying unit in Cameroon
Author Name :: Theodore Tchotang || Lucien Meva’a || Bienvenu Kenmeugne || Julia Melissa Ngakwe Djossie || Duplex Ntamsu
Country :: Cameroon
Page Number :: 27-33
The work performed in this paper concerns «The impact of mechanised stirring and scraping operations in a coffee and cocoa beans drying unit in Cameroon». The aim was to evaluate the impact of an equipment designed to perform the stirring and scraping operations during a drying cycle. In the case these operations are performed manually, some problems such as the risks of accident on the operators, enormous losses in time and work shutdowns are notified. Then a machine have been designed and sized to fulfil these functions. To evaluate the impact of this mechanisation, the adopted methodology start by the study of the existing mechanism. Come next the evaluation of the impact, based on the mixing degree, drying time and scraping duration criteria. The corresponding values for these criteria have been reported for ten non-mechanised drying cycles. The results obtained show the grains drying will be more homogeneous, with a mixing degree improved of 47.7% in lower value and 22.44% in upper value. The drying time will be reduced by 30% and the scraping duration will be reduced by 49.5%, both in lower value. Finally, the whole drying cycle will be reduced by 28.7% in lower value, which represent 01h24min42s.
Keywords: Drying unit, Beans, Mechanisation, Stirring, Scraping
[1]. Office National du Café et du Cacao, “ONCC,” 2017. [Online]. Available: www.oncc.com. [Accessed 22 Avril 2017].
[2]. ISO 2451, “Féve de cacao: spécifications et exigences de qualité,” ISO, 2017.
[3]. ISO 3509, “Codes d'usage pour la prévention et la réduction de la contamination par l'OTA du café,” ISO, Genève, 2009
[4]. K. Mamadou, A. Touré, Ardjouma Dembele, “Détermination du niveau de contamination de l'ocratoxnie A,” Journal Internation de science biologique et chimique , vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 33 - 41, 2008.
[5]. Uhl Gray, “Mixing theory and practice,” Academic press, New York, 1967.

Paper Title :: Geometry Effects on Failure Mechanisms of Hybrid Metal-Composite Bolted Joints
Author Name :: Calin-Dumitru COMAN
Country :: Romania
Page Number :: 34-51
This paper presents the effects of geometry variation on the damage initiation and growth in the CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) composite laminated plate of the single-lap, single-bolt, hybrid metal-composite joints. A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) incorporating geometric, material and friction-based contact full nonlinearities is developed to numerically investigate the geometry effects on the progressive damage analysis (PDA) of the orthotropic material. The PDA material model integrates the lamina nonlinear shear response, Hashin-tape failure criteria and strain-based continuum degradation rules, which were developed using the UMAT user subroutine in Nastran commercial software. In order to validate the geometry variation effects on the failure modes of the protruded head bolted joints, experiments were conducted using the SHM (Structural Health Monitoring) nondestructive testing technique. The results showed that the plate geometry is an important parameter in the design process of an adequate bolted joint and its effects on damage initiation and failure modes were quite accurately predicted by the PDA material model, which proved to be computationally efficient and can predict failure propagation and damage mechanisms in hybrid metal-composite bolted joints.
Keywords: Progressive Failure, Nonlinear Shear Deformation, Hybrid Joints, SHM
[1] Y. Xiao, T. Ishikawa, Bearing strength and failure behavior of bolted composite joints (part II: modeling and simulation), Composites Science and Technology,65(1), 2005, 1032–1043.
[2] J.L.Chaboche,Continuum damage mechanics: part I – Generalconcepts; part II – damage growth, crack initiation and crackgrowth,Journal of Applied Mechanics, 55,1988, 59–72.
[3] F.K. Chang, K.Y. Chang, Post-failure analysis of bolted compositejoints in tension or shear-out mode failure,Journal of Composite Materials,21,1987,809–33.
[4] L.B. Lessard, M.M.Shokrieh, Two-dimensional modeling ofcomposite pinned-joint failure,Journal of Composite Materials,29,1995,671–97.
[5] C.L. Hung, F.K Chang, Bearing failure of bolted composite joints.Part II: model and verification,Journal of Composite Materials,30,1996,1359–400.

Paper Title :: Toward Effective Distribution of Shear Walls in Reinforced Concrete Buildings Subjected to Earthquake Loading
Author Name :: A.I. Hamdan || A. A. Qabaja || M. J. Maraqa
Country :: Palestine
Page Number :: 52-56
The current paper presents the results of investigations of the effect of shear walls locations in reinforced concrete buildings on general structural performance when being subjected to lateral forces caused by earthquakes. The use of shear walls as a part of structural system to resists earthquakes is very common worldwide. However, they are usually located in buildings taking into consideration architectural constraints which results in bad structural performance. In this paper, the effects of different shear wall locations on lateral displacements and base shear are thoroughly examined to give recommendations on the best location of shear walls. It was found that shear walls are more effective when being placed at all sides of the periphery of a building while using a core wall at the center. The analysis results clearly show that the use of core shear wall at the center, the U-shaped shear walls would result in torsional mode of vibration which is not desirable.
Keywords: Shear walls, Reinforced concrete, Equivalent lateral method, Base shear, drift
[1] Ashraf, M., ZA SEDIGHI, and M. A. Javed. "Configuration of a multistorey building subjected to lateral forces." (2008): 525-537.
[2] Patwari, K. G., L. G. Kalurkar. "Shear wall Locations with Flat Slab and its Effect on Structure Subjected to Seismic Effect for Multistorey Building." International Journal of Engineering Science 2722 (2016).
[3] Tuppad, Suchita, and R. J. Fernandes. "Optimum location of shear wall in a multi-storey building subjected to seismic behavior using genetic algorithm." International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) vol 2 (2015).
[4] CSI, CSI. "analysis reference manual for SAP2000, ETABS, and SAFE." Computers and Structures, Inc., Berkeley, California, USA (2009).
[5] American Society of Civil Engineers, and Structural Engineering Institute. Minimum Design Loads on Buildings and Other Structures Standards Committee. "Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures." American Society of Civil Engineers, 2013.

Paper Title :: Influence of Women Enterprise Development Fund on Project Sustainability of Self-Help Groups in Mombasa, Kenya
Author Name :: Mumbar Lucy || Johnbosco Kisimbii || Dr. Moses Otieno
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 57-79
The study dealt with the influence of Women Enterprise Fund on project sustainability of women self-help groups in Kisauni constituency - Mombasa County .Despite different interventions put in place by the Kenyan government to align the Kenyan woman with the Millennium Development goals and to sustain women projects, minimal impact on growth has been observed hence it explored the extent to which leadership, technological innovativeness and financial management skills influence project sustainability of women enterprise funded groups. A sample population constituting of 84 chairladies were randomly sampled. The study adopted Descriptive survey research design; Data was collected by use questionnaires. The results were edited and coded in line with the study objectives. Data was analyzed using the *Statistical Package for Social Science and tabulated in form of frequencies, percentages and cross tabulation tables. Study revealed that majority of women had attained secondary school level and also possess decision making and problem solving skills thus aiding them run their self help groups. The study concluded that leadership skills, financial management and technological innovativeness to an extent influence sustainability of women projects. Researcher women in leadership undergo training on stress management to enable them manage group stressors and be promoted through effective and efficient use of information technology to assimilate information.
Keywords: Financial management, Innovation Leadership, & Women enterprise fund
[1]. Bowen, M., Morara, & Mureithi, S. (2009). Management of Business Challenges among Small and Medium Enterprises- Nairobi Kenya: KCA journal of Business Management.
[2]. Roy L. S. & Ming fang L. (2000). Environmental dynamism, Capital Structure and Performance: A Theoretical Integration and an Empirical Test. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 31-49
[3]. Shiu, E., & Walker, D. (2007). New Product Market Visioning in Small Enterprises, Journal
[4]. Nzomo M. (2011). Impact of the decades on policies, programs and Empowerment of women in Kenya issue. Journal Opinion, Vol XII No2.
[5]. Karani. N.F., Bichanga, W.O.,& Kamau, C.G.(2014).Effective use of Monitoring and Evaluation Systems in Managing HIV/AIDs Related Projects: A case study of Local NGOs in Kenya. Science Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 2,pp 67-76.

Paper Title :: Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate by Broken Glass Bottles
Author Name :: Akhila Subair || Khadeeja Siyadh || Mohammed Yasin || NishanaNizam || Shiyas S || Anees Beegom
Country :: India
Page Number :: 80-83
Concrete is the most important building constituent during 20th century and also it is the versatile material giving architectural freedom. Continuous use of traditional raw materials for concrete reduces the natural resources. Global nations interested in sustainable development are carrying out researches to find out new raw materials which are easily available and capable of producing enough strength. Such researches are carried out with recycled tire rubber, plastic powder, coconut shell etc. Disposal of waste glass in the open environment cause tremendous issues, .By utilizing these waste glasses as an ingredient of concrete ,environmental issues can be reduced to a certain extent .At the same time this will become a nice solution for the scarcity of natural ingredients.In this project, coarse aggregate has been replaced by broken glass accordingly in the range of 5%- 15% by weight for M-20 mix. The concrete specimens were tested in two series of test such. It as compression test and modulus of elasticity test carried out up to 28 days. It was observed that both the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity values are higher than normal concrete up to 10% replacement of coarse aggregate with glass and further increase in glass reduces the strengths gradually.
Keywords: Concrete, broken glass bottles, partial replacement as coarse aggregate
[1]. Dr. AbdelmaseehBakosKeryou, "Effect of Using Windows Waste Glass as Coarse Aggregate on Some Properties of Concrete", Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol.32, Part(A), No.6, 2014.
[2]. Egosi, N. G., Mixed broken glass processing solutions,Utilization of Waste Materials in CivilEngineering Construction Conference, USA, 1992.
[3]. GayalKuruppu and RavihansaChandratilake, "Use of Recycle Glass as a Coarse Aggregate in Concrete," world constructiowbbbn conference, 2012.
[4]. Johnson, C. D, Waste glass as coarse aggregate forconcrete, J. Test.Eval., 2, 344–350 (1995).
[5]. Liang, Hong; Zhu, Huiying; Byars, Ewan A, "Use of waste glass as aggregate in concrete", 7th UK CARE Annual General Meeting, UK Chinese Association of Resources and Environment, Greenwich, 15 September 2007.

Paper Title :: An Empirical Study on the Impact of Internet Finance on Commercial Banks in China
Author Name :: Weiyu Zhou || Fang Chen
Country :: China
Page Number :: 84-88
The data of the balance of Yu Bao and the currency in circulation and the demand deposits in China Commercial Bank during the period from December 2015 to March 2018 were selected to study the interaction between Yuen Bao Scale and demand deposits in commercial banks in China. The relationship, through empirical analysis of the data for the past few years, shows that the scale of Yu'ebao has a significant impact on the deposit business of commercial banks in China. The impact of internet finance on commercial banks was analyzed, and the development direction and countermeasures of China's commercial banks in the transition process were put forward.
Keywords: Internet finance; Yuqianbao; commercial bank; impact;
[1] Cui He. The Development of Internet Finance and Its Impact on the Traditional Business of Commercial Banks [D]. Henan University, 2016.
[2] Bu Yinwei. Countermeasures for the Transformation and Development of Commercial Banks in the Era of Internet Finance[J].Financial Development Review,2015(02):40-46.
[3] Wang Ruijie. Research on Commercial Bank Business Transformation under the Background of Internet Financial Development[D]. Shandong University, 2017.
[4] Liu Kangning. Research on the Impact of Internet Finance on Commercial Bank Business[J].Economic Research Journal,2016(21):80-81.

Paper Title :: Research on the Return of Shanghai Lead Futures Based on GARCH Model
Author Name :: Shuying Du || Wei Li || Fang Chen
Country :: China
Page Number :: 89-93
Shanghai Lead Futures was listed on the Shanghai Futures Exchange on March 24, 2011. Futures trading is focused on matching the bidding price, and the price formed by it is ahead of the price change in the spot market. Therefore, this article will take the price of Shanghai Lead futures as an example, through the GARCH model to conduct a comprehensive and in-depth exploration and analysis of its volatility. In this way, an objective evaluation of the Shanghai-Lead Futures Market was made.
Keywords: futures; Shanghai-lead futures; GARCH model
[1] Peng Hongfeng, Ye Yonggang. Dynamic optimal hedge ratio estimation and comparison based on modified ECM-GARCH model[J]. Chinese Journal of Management Science, 2007(05):29-35.
[2] Zhang Yunpeng. Research on financial market risk based on GARCH model [D]. Jilin University, 2009.
[3] Yang Erpeng, Zhang Desheng, Li Wenjing. Research on the statistical forecast of yield of Shanghai and Shenzhen 300 Index based on GARCH model[J]. Journal of Yangtze University of Science and Technology, 2010,7(01):151-153+388.
[4] Xiao Jing. Shanghai Lead Futures sailed at the time [J]. Resource Recycling, 2011(03):36-39.
[5] Liu Xibiao. Estimation of hedging ratio of lead futures based on time-varying normal Copula-GJR model [J]. Times Finance, 2016(02): 222+224.

Paper Title :: Developing Countries andBlockchain Technology: Uganda’s Perspective
Author Name :: Emmanuel Ahishakiye || Ruth Wario || Ivan Niyonzima
Country :: Uganda
Page Number :: 94-99
Blockchain is receiving ever-growing attention from research and industry and is considered a breakthrough technology. This paper presents an overview of Blockchain Technology and its potential applications in developing countries especially Uganda. It was noted thatthese nations have the potential to progress, but do not have adequate access to present day technology, primarily due to lack of infrastructure and thus Blockchain Technology will fill the gaps. Fundamentally, these nations need transparency, security, and accountability in their processes, all of which are cornerstones of Blockchain technology. Finally, this paper reveals that due to the support from both government and non-governmental organizations, and the establishment of the Blockchain Association of Uganda, Uganda is ready forBlockchain Technology.
Keywords: Blockchain Technology; Developing Countries; Blockchain; Blockchain Applications
[1]. Crosby, M.; Nachiappan; Pattanayak, P.; Verma, S.; Kalyanaraman V. Blockchain Technology: Beyond Bitcoin; Applied Innovation Review, Issue No. 2 June 2016.
[2]. Gatteschi, V.; Lamberti, F.; Demartini, C.; Pranteda, C.; Santamaría, V. Blockchain and Smart Contracts for Insurance: Is the Technology Mature Enough? Future Internet 2018, 10, 20; doi:10.3390/fi10020020. www.mdpi.com/journal/futureinternet.
[3]. Swan, M. Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy; O‟Reilly Media: Newton, MA, USA, 2015.
[4]. Dimitri, N. The Blockchain Technology: Some Theory and Applications. Working Paper No. 2017/03. October 2017.
[5]. Nakamoto, S. Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. 2008. Available online: https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf (accessed on 19 May 2018).

Paper Title :: Identification and measurement of lost time as an indicator of the performance of the industrial system
Author Name :: Florent Biyeme || Jean Raymond Lucien Meva’a || Joseph Voufo || Theodore Tchotang || Donald Nanfack Njedock
Country :: Cameroon
Page Number :: 100-118
Nowadays, competition forces companies to continually evaluate their performance, in order to investigate the lost time in hierarchically organized industrial systems, a number of hypotheses have been formulated to clearly describe the periodic treatment of an unknown event that can disrupt the normal functioning of the system. In every circumstance, the time lost depends on the parameters of a given system. A methodology to help simulate and reduce the time lost has been proposed prior to the development of an indicator as a function of the variation of the periodicity of event management. Finally, observable data collected from a case study of a sugar-processing unit were compared to the testing and implementation of the theoretical model. The empirical data showed only minor deviations from the simulated results. Therefore, it was concluded that the model can be used to predict and optimize mechanical maintenance performance.
Keywords: Performance indicators, periodic processing, simulation, time loss.
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[2] Bonds T.C., «The role of performance measurement in continuous improvement «International Journal of Operations Production Management, Vol 19 (12), pp. 1318-1334
[3] Bititci U.S., (2000). “Dynamics of performance measurement systems”, International Journal of Operations & Production Management”, Vol. 20 (6), pp. 692-704.
[4] Bitton M., (1990). “ECOGRAI: méthode de conception et d’implantation des systèmes de mesure des performances pour organisations industrielles », Thèse de Doctorat en Automatique, Université de Bordeaux I., (1990).
[5]Le Dain A.M., Ndao P.I., (1997). “Sur un système d’indicateurs de performance pour l’évaluation d’une automatisation dans une entreprise papetière », 2ème Congrès International Franco-Québécois, Le Génie Industriel dans un monde sans frontière, 3-5 septembre Albi.

Paper Title :: Surface Morphological Characteristics on Unmodified Cucurbita as a Biosorbent Potential for Chloride and Sulphate
Author Name :: Sabariah Musa || Nur Huda Mohamad
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 119-126
Groundwater is a second thought for a safe water supply to fulfil the needs of living creatures on the earth surface. In Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), groundwater can be extracted from pumped well at Research Centre for Soft Soil Malaysia (RECESS) area, but the quality was not promising as drinking water supply. The purposes of this study were to characterize the surface morphology of unmodified Cucurbita as biosorbent for each part from peel, flesh and seed and determine the effectiveness of Cucurbita components by using biosorbent amount optimization. From the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) result, some porous surface texture was spotted and it was believed to assist in entrapping and adsorbing the contaminants exists in groundwater. The biosorption method involved cucurbita components namely peel, flesh and seed as sorbent while the groundwater acted as solvent that contains chloride and sulphate ions as sorbate. Three parameters were assessed namely chloride, sulphate and pH on series of biosorbent amount which affects biosorption performance. The percentage of biosorbent for optimization that was analyzed in this study was 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%. The Ionize Chromatography (IC) result showed that peel was proven to be the most effective component in removing chloride and sulphate in groundwater by 16.8% and 12.8% respectively. Meanwhile, the data obtained showed that increases in adsorbent amount helped in reducing the pH value of groundwater. Hence, as referred to the Drinking Water Standard published by Malaysia Ministry of Health, concluded that pH and sulphate exist within permissible limit which are 6.5-9.0 and 250 mg/L while chloride ceased to present within 250 mg/L boundary. As a conclusion, cucurbita can be classified as a potential biosorbent for groundwater treatment but some improvements must be implemented to bring a significant impact for the benefit of mankind through a safe drinking water supply and cost effective treatment.
Keywords: Cucurbita, pumpkin, groundwater, biosorption process
[1] C. B. Lorraine, E. Emilio, H. R. Carol, K. Stephanie and A. M. Michael, Assessing Acute Diarrhea from Sulfate in Drinking Water. Journal (American Water Works Association), 93, 2001, 76-84.
[2] S. Musa, N. A. Ariff, M. N. A. Kadir, and F. Denan, Simplified Method for Groundwater Treatment Using Dilution and Ceramic Filter, Proc. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering , Malaysia, 136, 2016, 1-7.
[3] I. S. Zektser and L.G. Everett, Groundwater resources of the world and their use. IHP-VI Series on groundwater , 6, 2004, 1–346.
[4] I. Ali, and V. K. Gupta, Advances in water treatment by adsorption technology, Nature Protocols, 1(6), 2007, 2661–2667.
[5] M. A. Barakat, New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater, Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 4(4), 2011, 361-377.

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