IJLRET provides individual hard copy of certificates to all authors after online publication. w.e.f. 01/11/2015
Log in || Register editor@ijlret.com

Vol. 2, No. 1 [January 2016]:

Paper Title :: FAA NextGen ADS-B Project Case Study: An analysis of project management practices and knowledge areas
Author Name :: Mia C. Barnes || Josilaida Lawrence || Robert Mangiante || Deborah Toomey
Country :: USA
Page Number :: 01-15
Application of the Standards of Project Management (Project Management Institute, 2013) have been recognized as a major contributing factor to the successful outcome across major projects within the U. S Government and its agencies. The size and scope of programs that engage stakeholders within governmental agencies, across agencies, and among industry partners, ensure their resources are carefully planned and require analysis of risk in order to reach successful and impactful results as defined by the project objectives and endorsed by key stakeholders. By utilizing PMI's Project Lifecycle Phases and Project Management Knowledge Areas (Project Management Institute, 2013), research into specific knowledge areas within program and project management will be explored in order to identify the contributing factors of success. We expect that the conclusions drawn from this research will validate the findings of other research and publications about the shift of task oriented project management to a more people management oriented discipline. Our hypothesis is that Project Management, as a discipline, has evolved towards inclusion and collaboration as part of the planning, organization, execution and closure of future project management processes. We expect that knowledge areas related to soft skills will rate higher. The ADS-B presents a great opportunity to validate this hypothesis due to the fact that it is a recently completed known project and presents more modern project management trends throughout its lifecycle.
KEYWORDS –Collaboration,FAA, Project Management, Project Lifecycle, Governmen
[1]. Federal Aviation Administration (n.d.). Automatic Dependent Surveillance=Broadcast (ADS-B). Retrieved from http://www.faa.gov/nextgen/programs/adsb/
[2]. Federal Aviation Administration (2015). NextGen Implementation Plan. Retrieved from http://www.faa.gov/nextgen/media/NextGen_Implementation_Plan-2015.pdf
[3]. FTA. (2015). Procurement Planning and Organization. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved May 24, 2015 from http://www.fta.dot.gov/12831_6186.html.
[4]. Ho, M. (2005, October 1). Managing Project Quality: Cost, Control and Justification. Retrieved from http://www.information-management.com/special reports/20051025/1040055-1.html?zkPri
[5]. Kwak, Y.H. and Anbari, F. T. (2009). "Availability-Impact Analysis of Project Management Trends: Perspectives from Allied Disciplines," Project Management Journal, vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 94–103.

Author Name :: Sheetal Jaiswal || Shraddha Kumar
Country :: India
Page Number :: 16-22
Various routing protocols and techniques are being included in wireless network and making it an area for further research. Congestion avoidance and security are the major areas in Wireless routing which are having research focus. Improved Routing Security is being proposed in this work which will provide the routing protocol security using validating a node for identification which is being distributed to each node through protocol.. Various researchers have identified the issues related with it and proposed various mechanism to solve this problem. This work proposes a new algorithm based on reputation and key based security for the MANET to improve the security. The basic algorithm is based on reputation value of the communicating node i.e. it should be comparable with each other for accepting nodes in the network. Once reputation is found to be comparable node exchange the keys for further communication.
Keywords— MANET, Reputation, Multi pattern Key, DSDV.
[1]. Agrawal, R.; Sahu, S., "Secured routing over manet using Enhanced Secured Routing (ESR)," Control Computing Communication & Materials (ICCCCM), 2013 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,6, 3-4 Aug. 2013.
[2]. Shushan Zhao, Akshai Aggarwal, Richard Frost and Xiaole Bai, "A Survey of Applications of Identity-Based Cryptography in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Vol. 14, No. 2, Second Quarter 2012.
[3]. Salaheddin Darwish, Simon J. E. Taylor and Gheorghita Ghinea, "Security Server-Based Architecture for Mobile Ad hoc Networks," IEEE 11th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications, 978-0-7695-4745-9, 2012.
[4]. Erman Ayday and Faramarz Fekri, "An Iterative Algorithm for Trust Management and Adversary Detection for Delay-Tolerant Networks," IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING, VOL. 11, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2012, 1536-1233, SECOND QUARTER2012.
[5]. S.Neelavathy Pari, Sabarish Jayapal and Sridharan Duraisamy "A Trust System In Manet With Secure Key Authentication Mechanism," IEEE, ISBN: 978-1-4673-1601-9, 2012.

Paper Title :: Present Situation and Advance of Remaining Oil Research Technology
Author Name :: Qi Zhenru || Shi Shangming
Country :: China
Page Number :: 23-27
Remaining oil research is one of the important research work in oil field development geology, reservoir engineering and production technology. At present, the remaining oil research methods are: core analysis, development of geological methods, seismic methods, micro structure method, water drive characteristic curve method, reservoir numerical simulation method, testing method, experimental analysis method, etc.. Yu Qitai put forward to enter the high water cut period after the remaining oil enrichment at the top of the positive rhythm of the oil layer, layer and layer of the low permeability of the interlayer between the existence of the injection water has not affected the area; the edge of the reservoir zone. At present, there are commonly used for tapping the potential of means or technology: improve the well network, adjusting liquid flow direction, horizontal well drilling, polymer content flooding, gas flooding and microbial flooding. It is difficult to describe the remaining oil accurately and completely by a single technique. Multidisciplinary integrated research and comprehensive application of various technologies is the best way to describe the remaining oil in detail and accurately.
Keywords: Remaining oil, Geological method, Distribution pattern, integration
[1]. Sun Huanquan. Reservoir dynamic model and remaining oil distribution model [M].Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press,2002.
[2]. Wei Bin,Zheng Junmao. Study on remaining oil distribution in high water cut oilfieldM].Beijing: Geological Publishing House,2002.
[3]. Ran Qiyou. Research status and development trend of remaining oil [J]. Petroleum Geology And Recovery Efficiency,2003,10(5):49~51.
[4]. Joseph S T,Zhang Peixin.Effect ofmobile oil on residual oilsaturationmeasurement by interwell tracingmethod[J].SPE64627,2000.
[5]. Yu Qitai.Papers about oil field development write by Yu Qitai[M].Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press,1999:772-776

Paper Title :: Effect of Titanium powder addition on hardness in submerged arc welding
Author Name :: Atul Kathuria || Deepak Gupta
Country :: India
Page Number :: 28-34
This paper reports on an optimization of SAW process by the effects of Titanium powder on hardness by applying Taguchi methods to improve the quality of Submerged arc welding, and engineering development of designs for studying variation. IS 2062 steel is used as the work piece material for carrying out the experimentation to optimize the optimal parameter for higher hardness. There are three machining parameters i.e. current, electrode stick out and flux. Taguchi orthogonal array is designed with three levels of parameters with the help of software Minitab 15. In the first run nine experiments are performed and hardness is calculated. The hardness was considered as the quality characteristic with the concept of "the larger-the-better". The S/N ratio for the larger-the-better Where n is the number of measurements in a trial/row, in this case, n=1 and y is the measured value in a run/row. The S/N ratio values are calculated by taking into consideration with the help of software Minitab 15. The hardness values measured from the experiments and their optimum value for maximum hardness Every day scientists are developing new materials and for each new material, we need economical and efficient welding. It is also predicted that Taguchi method is a good method for optimization of various machining parameters as it reduces the number of experiments. The optimal value of Hardness is maximum on the parameter when current is 350 ampere, electrode stick out 25 mm and flux 3 is used. After all study it was found titanium powder is helpful to increase hardness of weld in submerged arc welding.
Index Terms— SAW welding, optimization, orthogonal array, ANOVA, S/N ratio.
[1]. R. S. Parmar, "Welding processes and technology", 2nd Ed, 2008.
[2]. A.M. Mercado, V.M. Hirata and M. L. Munoz (2005) "Influence of the chemical composition of flux on the microstructure and tensile properties of submerged-arc welds", Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume–169, issue 3, pp. 346–351.
[3]. V.B. Trindade, R.S.T. Mello, J.C. Payão and R.P.R. Paranhos (2005) "Influence of Zirconium on Microstructure and Toughness of Low-Alloy Steel Weld Metals", International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Volume–l5, pp. 284–286.
[4]. P. Kanjilal, T.K. Pal and S.K. Majumdar (2006) "Combined effect of flux and welding parameters on chemical composition and mechanical properties of submerged arc weld metal". Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume– 171, issue 2, pp. 223–231.
[5]. S. Kumanan, J.E.R. Dhas and K. Gowthaman (2007) "Determination of submerged arc welding process parameters using Taguchi method and Regression analysis" Indian Journal of Engineering and Material Science, Volume–14, pp. 177–183.

Paper Title :: Green Buildings Concept towards Sustainable Urban Development and Panacea for Global Warming
Author Name :: Bhavesh Jha || Shalwee || Sanyogita Verma || Pramod R. Chaudhari
Country :: India
Page Number :: 35-41
As per the United Nation's report, the urban population in India is going to reach more than 600 million by 2031, increase of around 40% of the population. Currently, almost 10 percent of Indian GDP is based on construction activities and is important for Indian economy. However, this resulted in environmental degradation. Natural resources degradation (Air, soil, and water etc.) and increasing toxic waste due to urbanization has become a challenge for an economy to sustain. The sustainable urban management has become one of the important issues these days. Recently developed Green Building Concept is the potential solution and key to sustainable urban development. It is the practice of increasing efficiency with which buildings use resources – energy, water and materials – while reducing building impacts on human health and the environment. These practices are healthy and more resources efficient in the process of siting, construction, renovation, operation, maintenance and demolition. This consists of life cycle assessment (LCA) based planning for green building. Therefore, all the suitable technologies and innovative ideas available in different areas depending on local resources are suitable to make the green building environment- friendly. Green building technology is thus undergoing constant changes and getting more improved with the time. Government should also ensure proper guidelines for sustainable construction activity to implement this concept and to reduce environmental degradation.
Keywords: Green Building, Impacts, Sustainable Development, Urbanization
[1]. Vijayasanan T.A., Ecological Building. University of Michigan. Browsed 27 April 2012.
[2]. NIC (2012) Monuments – Golconda Fort. National Informatics Centre, Indian Government. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
[3]. Voogt James A., Urban heat islands: Hotter cities. 2014, www.actionbioscience.org/environment/voogt.html
[4]. Li Y. and Zhao X., (2012). An empirical study of the impact of human activity on long-term temperature change in China: A perspective from energy consumption. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2012, 117. doi:10.1029/2012JD018132
[5]. Drexhage John and Murphy Deborah, Sustainable development: From Brundtland to Rio 2012. Background Paper, International Institute of Sustainable Development (IISD), United Nations Headquarters. New York, September 2010.

Paper Title :: 3D Reconstruction from Single 2D Image
Author Name :: Deepu R, Murali S
Country :: India
Page Number :: 42-51
The perception of 3D scene with stereovision is the capability of human vision but it is a challenge to computer systems. The challenge is to obtain 3D geometric shape information from planar images. This is termed as 3D reconstruction. It is usually done in a piece-wise fashion by identifying various planes of the scene and from those planes constructing a representation of the whole. The image is captured from a calibrated camera. The captured image is perspectively distorted. These distortions are removed by corner point estimation. The selected points give the true dimensions in the input image using view metrology. Then a 3D geometrical model is constructed in VRML according to true dimensions from metrology. In rendering, a texture map is created to each corresponding surface of a polygon in VRML model. VRML supports for walkthrough to a rendered model, through which different views are generated.
[1]. Akash Kushal And Jean Ponce "Modeling 3d Objects From Stereo Views And Recognizing Them In Photographs " University of Illinois at urbana-champaign,2005
[2]. Ashutosh Saxena, Min Sun And Andrew Y. Ng "Learning 3-D Scene Structure From A Single Still Image "IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence(PAMI),2008.
[3]. S Murali N Avinash "Estimation Of Depth Information From A Single View In An Image "3DTVconference: The true vision-capture, Transmission and Display of 3D video(3DTV-CON),2010
[4]. Heewon Lee, Alper Yilmaz "3d Reconstruction Using Photo Consistency From Uncalibrated Multiple Views" ohio state university,2010.
[5]. K Susheel kumar, Vijay Bhaskar Semwal, Shitala Prasad And R.C Tripathi "Generating 3d Model Using 2d Images Of An Object "International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST),2011.

Paper Title :: Ripple Current Reduction Technique for DC to DC Converter Using Tapped Inductor
Author Name :: Liji k.k || Soumya C
Country :: India
Page Number :: 52-57
A new ripple current cancellation network (RCN) using Tapped inductor at the input of the boost converter with high conversion ratio is presented in this paper. This converter provides continuous input current and reduces the size and weight of the converter compared with the conventional Boost Converter (CBC). The tapped inductor can be easily realized by adding an extra tap in the main inductor of the CBC. Since the capacitor and inductor in the RCN do not need to handle the main power as the conventional LC input filter. A ripple current cancellation technique injects alternating current into the output voltage bus of a converter that is equal and opposite to the normal converter ripple current. The proposed converter is compared with conventional Interleaved Boost topology (IBC) shows that input current ripple cancellation in various power ranges without increasing the losses. The tapped inductor technology based DC—DC converter is an integration of boost converter with coupled inductors. The tapped converter of the classical switch –mode power converter is an extension of the conventional switch mode power converters. Using the tapped configuration the control parameter of the converter can be using tapping. The proposed converter has two modes in one operational period. This converter is controlled by switch S. Design for a 500W converter is conveyed in this paper with input voltages taken as 36V and output voltages of 50V is done for a switching frequency of 100 kHz. The duty cycle of the boost converter during the steady operation is 0.3 and turns ratio of tapped inductor is 2(10:20). The converter is simulated for both modes of operation using PSIM. Output levels are obtained as per the design values for converter operations. This converter shares the same characteristic of CBC and input current ripple cancellation can be achieved by adding one capacitor and one inductor without significantly increasing the current stress and losses. Simulation results conveys the operability of the converter structure.
[1]. B. W. Williams(May 2013) ―DC-to-DC converters with continuous input and output power,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 2307–2316.
[2]. B.R.Lin and C. L. Huang(Apr. 2008), ―Interleaved ZVS converter with ripple- currentcancellation,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1576–1585.
[3]. C. S. Leu, P. Y. Huang, and M. H. Li(Apr. 2011), ―A novel dual-inductor boost converter with ripple cancellation for high-voltage-gain applications,‖ IEEETrans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1268–1273.
[4]. A. Grant and Y. Darroman(Feb. 2001), ―Extending the tapped-inductor DC-to-DC converter family,‖ Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 145–146.
[5]. A. Grant, Y. Darroman, and J. Suter(Sep. 2007), ―Synthesis of tapped-inductor switched-mode converters,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 5,pp. 1964–1969.

Paper Title :: A Survey On Image Matching Methods
Author Name :: Reshmi Krishnan || Anil.A.R
Country :: India
Page Number :: 58-61
Image matching is the process of bringing two images geometrically into agreement so that matching pixels in the two images matches to the same physical region of the area being imaged. Matching algorithms plays a key role in deciding correspondences between two image scenes. The matching algorithms are of two types area based matching and feature based matching. This paper aims to present a review of various image matching methods.
KEYWORDS –DEM,FSIFT, Image matching, Phase Correlation, SIFT, SURF.
[1]. D. G. Lowe, "Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints," Int. J. Comput. Vis., vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 91–110, Nov. 2004.
[2]. M. Aly, "Face Recognition using SIFT Features", http://www.vision.caltech.edu/malaa/research.php
[3]. J. Krizaj, V. Struc, and N. Pavesic "Adaptation of SIFT features for Robust Face Recognition".
[4]. DakshinaRanjanKisku, AjitaRattani, Enrico Grosso, Massimo Tistarelli,".Face Identification by SIFT-based Complete Graph Topology".
[5]. Dakshina R. Kisku, Massimo Tistarelli, JamunaKanta Sing, Phalguni Gupta, "Face Recognition by Fusion of Local and Global Matching Scores using DS Theory: An Evaluation with Uni-classifier and Multi-classifier Paradigm"

Paper Title :: Effects of Rain Drops Rate on Digital Broadcasting Satellite (DBS) System in Kaduna
Author Name :: Tonga Agadi Danladi || Yahaya Abubakar Hamisu || Jazuli Sunusi Kazaure || Jaafar Ibrahim Kazaure
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 62-67
Recent development in microwave communications technology, especially in telecommunications and broadcasting has resulted in congestion in the frequencies lower than 10GHz. This has made it necessary for microwave designers and planners to look for high frequencies. But frequencies greater than 10GHz, rain becomes one of the main factors of signal attenuation. At frequencies from 10GHz upwards, rain drop sizes lead to outage of signal that compromises the availability and quality of service, thus making it a critical factor that affect the quality of service. The research is aimed at conducting analysis of raw data collected from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) and data retrieved from archive Galaxy Backbone plc, from April-October, 2012 and April-October, 2013 to examine the effect of rain drops rate on digital broadcasting satellite (DBS) system at KU-band frequency. Result obtained from the two institutional organizations showed that the rain rate in the month of August is the highest with a value of 35.72mm/hr for the year 2012 and lowest being the month of April with a value of 7.95mm/hr. This show that the higher the rain intensity the shorter the period of rain. The impact of the rain rate in the month of August on the DBS signal will be significant compared to that it would be for the month of April. The same can be said of the month of June, July and September of the year 2013. Also it can be observed that the average rain rate in the year 2013 is much more than observed for the year 2012.
Key-words: DBS system, KU-band frequency, microwave frequency, rain rate and signal attenuation
[1]. Onno Beemsterboer (2005)" Vsat Installation and maintenance training "Loral skynet network systems (Europe) Ltd 2nd Edition August , pp 18
[2]. Kamarad Ahmed (2002) " toturial satellite communications "Institute of information technology university of Sindh Pakistan, pp 4
[3]. Crane R.K (1996) Electromagnetic wave propagation through rain"Wiley New York.
[4]. Ippolito L.J 1998b, " Radio propagation for the space communication systems. Proceedings of IEEE vol 69 No 6 (June) pp697-727.
[5]. Nigeria's Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and City of Abuja www.FCT.gov.ng
[6]. http://www.mlesat.com/tutorial.html.

Paper Title :: Necessary Optimality Conditions for Approximate Minima in Unconstrained Finite Minmax Problem
Author Name :: A. M. P. Chandrasiri || D. M. Samarathunge
Country :: India
Page Number :: 01-03
A mathematical optimization is the process of minimizing (or maximizing) a function. The minimum of a function is a critical point and corresponds to gradient (or derivative) of 0. The research work presented in this paper deals with unconstrained minmax problem where the objective function is the maximum of a finite number of smooth convex functions. Obviously, that function is convex but may not be necessarily differentiable. Thus, we can't use gradient method. When gradient information of the objective function is unavailable, unreliable or 'expensive' in terms of computation time, the approximate optimization is ideal. More precisely, we focus on necessary optimality conditions for approximate minima in minmax problem. Firstly, we followed all the details about convex optimization, optimality conditions, subgradient and subdifferential as well as approximate optimization. We present unbiassed and sharp result using standard theorems and references. In here Carathéodory's theorem plays very important role to get our result.
Key-words: approximate, convex, differentiable, optimization, unconstrai
[1]. G.D. Pillo, L. Grippo and S. Lucidi, A Smooth method for the Finite Minmax Problem (Math. Program, 1993).
[2]. B. Rustem, S. Zakovic, An Interior Point Algorithm for Continuous Minimax., Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, 136, 2008, 87-103.
[3]. J.B Hiriart-Urruty, C Lemarechal, Convex Analysis and Minimization Algorithms I, Fundamentals. Springer- Verlag , 1996.
[4]. A. M. Bagirov, B. Karasozen, and M. Sezer. Discrete gradient method: derivative-free method for nonsmooth optimization. J. Optim. Theory Appl., 137(2), 2008, 317-334.
[5]. K. C. Kiwiel. A nonderivative version of the gradient sampling algorithm for nonsmooth nonconvex optimization. SIAM J. Optim., 20(4), 2010, 1983–1994.
Paper Title :: MeasuringEnterpriseSmart Business Performance in an Entire Performance Perspective
Author Name :: Chui Young
Country :: South Korea
Page Number :: 04-09
Most enterprise has applied their smart business capabilities to management activities in order to raise the performance of business execution in a global management environment. The measurement for the performance of a firm's smart business execution should be performed to efficiently build and improve the smart business capability appropriate for its management and business departments. A measurement instrument needs to effectively measure a firm's smart business performance in order to manage and improve its smart management capability. We verified the validity and reliability of the developed instrument by factor analysis and reliability analysis based on previous studies. This researchprovides a 12-item instrument that can reasonably gauge a firm smart business performance in a total performance perspective.
Key-words: Smart business, Business performance, Smart business performance, Measurement factors and items, Structural instrument
[1]. E. V. Heck and P. Vervest, Smart business networks: Concepts and empirical evidence,Decision Support Systems, 47, 2009, 275-276.
[2]. L. M. Hilty, B. Aebischer, A. Rizzoli, Modeling and evaluating the sustainability of smart solutions, Environmental Modeling & Software, 56,2014, 1-5.
[3]. J. Busquets, J. Rodon, and J. Wareham,Adaptability in smart business networks: An exploratory case in the insurance industry,Decision Support Systems, 47,2009, 287-296.
[4]. Y. F. Chang, C. S. Chen, and H. Zhou, Smart phone for mobile commerce, Computer Standards & Interfaces, 31, 2009, 740-747.
[5]. C. Y. Yoon, A Structural Tool to Efficiently Analyze Enterprise Smart Business Capability in a total Smart Business Capability Perspective, iNFORMATION An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 17(11-A),2014, 5607-5618.
Paper Title :: Low cost Solution for Temperature and Humidity monitoring and control System using Touch Screen Technology
Author Name :: Ashish Sharma || Gaurav Tiwari || Durvijay Singh
Country :: India
Page Number :: 10-14
The objective of the work describes the observation and construction of low cost solution for temperature and humidity monitor and control using touch screen and character LCD Display for industrial, laboratory and house-hold uses. In this paper a low cost embedded system based temperature and humidity monitor and control is built using AVR ATmega16 Microcontroller, Resistive Touch Screen and DHT11 (Temperature and Humidity Sensor). This model is purely electronics with high sensitivity and less error probability.
Key-words: Touch Screen, AVR Microcontroller, Temperature Control, Humidity Control, DHT11, Temperature Sensor, Humidity Sensor, Temperature Monitoring
[1] Resistive Touch Screen- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistive_touchscreen
[2] "ATMEL- Short Notes" www.atmel.com
[3] Sensor Interfacing- http://www.engineersgarage.com/contribution/microcontroller-based-lpg-gas-detector-using-gsm-module
[4] Sensor Interfacing- http://www.engineersgarage.com/contribution/smart-home-automation-using-avr
Paper Title :: Study on Nano-deposited Ni-based Electrodes for Hydrogen Evolution from Sea Water Electrolysis
Author Name :: R. Abdel-Karim || A. Abdel-Fatah || H. A., Ahmed || S.M. El-Raghy
Country :: Egypt
Page Number :: 15-26
Ni-based nano-layers were electrodeposited on low alloy carbon steel substrate using alkali electrolyte at current density 20 mA/cm2 for 30 min. The effect of co-deposited elements (Fe, Mo) on the morphology, mechanical and electrochemical properties of deposited layer, has been investigated. SEM image of the deposited films exhibited a nodular structure having a grain size in the range of ~4- 7 nm. Based on EDAX analysis, the pure Ni layer was electrodeposited from pure electrolytes containing Ni-salts. The Ni-Fe alloy was composed of 96% Ni, 3% Fe, and 1% O. On the other hand.The chemical analysis of Ni-Mo binary alloy had the following analysis; 65% Ni, 33% Mo, 2% O. The ternary alloy, Ni-Mo-Fe contained 46% Ni, 49% Mo, 1% Fe, and 4% O. The oxygen content detected, increased with increasing the molybdenum content in the electrodeposited layer. According to XRD, multiple peaks representing pure Ni, Ni- and Mo solid solutions (ss), as well as intermetallic compounds were detected. The degree of crystallinity of Ni-based nano-deposits was decreased by the presence of alloying elements. The hydrogen evolution on Ni-Mo-Fe nano-deposit examined in sea water electrolytes was accompanied by low cathodic Tafel's constant βc (50.2 mV/decade), and low over- potential (-850 V). This leads to high hydrogen evolution capability, where the volume of hydrogen evolved by cathodic electrolysis of sea water was 8 mL/hr. This ternary Ni-Mo-Fe deposit showed high corrosion resistance (1.7x 10-3mm/y), in sea water.
Key-words: Nanodepsoits, electrodeposition, Ni-based alloys, HER, sea water electrolysis.
[1]. Jayalakshmi M, Kim WY, Jung O. S, Joo KD. Electrochemcial characterization of Ni-Mo-Fe composite film in alkali solution. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 2008; 3, 908-917.
[2]. El-Raghy SM, Abdel-Karim R, Khalaf A, Ayman K, Aziz L. Surface characterization and corrosion properties of nanocrystalline Ni-based coatings. International Conference on Corrosion Mitigation and Surface Protection Technologies, Hurghada-Egypt, 2012.
[3]. Choquette Y, Menard H, Brossard L. Hydrogen discharge on a Raney nickel composite-coated electrode. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 1989; 14 (9): 637-642.
[4]. Arul Raj I, Venkatesan V K. Characterization of nickel-molybdenum and nickel-molybdenum-iron alloy coatings as cathodes for alkaline water electrolysers. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy1988; 13 (4): 215-223.
[5]. Baeck SH, Jaramillo TF, Brandli C, McFarland EW. Combinatorial electrochemical synthesis and characterization of Tungsten-based mixed-metal oxides. J. Comb. Chem 2002; 4: 563-568.
Author Name :: Aladenika A.K || Aladeniyi K || Olaitan S K
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 27-30
Wood- cement bonded particle boards were manufactured by exposing the particles ( Sawdusts and wood shavings) to water temperature treatments of 50oC, 60oC,70oC,80oC and 90oC respectively. The dried particles were mixed together at ratio 5: 1 by the inclusion of cement at ratio 2: 3. 3% aluminium Chloride was later added to the mixture. The set up was airdried and filled into moulds while pressure was applied manually to the formed mat. The results of the physical and mechanical properties of the produced boards showed the following range of values; water absorption (22.20-27.00%), thickness/swelling (11.00-16.07%), Linear expansivity(10.90-15.20%) and modulus of rupture (3.78-5.20)N/mm2. Stronger and stiffer boards with good dimensional stability were obtained at temperature between 50oC -80oC, while at temperature 80oC, the bonded particle boards were observed to be weaker. Sawdusts and Shavings are strong contenders for Wood –Cement bonded particle board production.
Key-words: Properties, Pre-treatment, Board properties, Wood-cement.
[1]. Alberto, M.M; Mougle, E, and Zoulahan, A. (2000). "‟Compatibility of some tropical Hardwood species with Portland cement, using Isothermal calorimentry‟‟ Journal of Forest Production Vol 20 pp. 33- 88.
[2]. Badejo, S.O and Owonubi,J.J. (2000), "‟ Development of Value Added Building Materials Manufacture Sawdust‟‟, A paper presented at 28thAnnual conference of Science Association of Nigeria at University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
[3]. Brandt, A.M (1995),"‟Cement Based Composition: Materials, Mechanical properties and performance‟‟ 1st edition, chapman and Hall, London, pp, 5-60, 77-80.
[4]. Briston , W.. and Elton, B. (1990). "‟Wood Cement Board Plant System for House building with wood cement board‟‟ Information Report, Spring, West Germany, pg. 52
[5]. Huang, C.andCopper, P.A (2000). "‟Technical process for the production of wood cement boards‟‟. Ecosystem Research and Development, Vol 45, Pg 9
Paper Title :: A Proposal On Path Loss Modelling In Millimeter Wave Band For Mobile Communications
Author Name :: N.S.Murti sarma
Country :: India
Page Number :: 31-33
A proposal for carrying out research work in mobile communications is outlined. A sample result on scintillation is discussed. The result found in agreement with the published plot.
Key-words: cellular systems, path loss, millimeter waves, absorption, personel communications.
[1]. Ishimaru.A, "Temporal radio frequency spectrs of multifrequency waves in trubulent atmosphere", IEEE Trans. On Antennas and propagation, Vol AP20, pp. 10 -19, 1972.
[2]. Saleh Faruque, "Cellular mobile system engineering", Artech house, 1996.
[3]. Lee W.C.Y., "Millimeter wave link set up", Private communication, 1973.
[4]. Van Vleck J.H., "The absorption of microwaves by Oxygen", phyrev., vol 71, pp 413 – 424, April 1947.
[5]. Siqueria G.L., Cole R.S., "Temporal frequency spectra for plane and spherical wavesin a millimeter wave absorption band", Trans on Antenna and Propagation, Vol 39, No.2, pp 229 – 233, February 1991,
Paper Title :: Digital Inpainting Techniques- A Survey
Author Name :: Jeena Joshua || Gopu Darsan
Country :: India
Page Number :: 34-36
Digital inpainting can be described as a technique of filling gaps or occlusions in an input image for making it more visually plausible. It is a method of image reconstruction. We know that image reconstruction is done to recover degeneration or degradation caused to the images due to some image processing activities. The filling of gaps or lost area is done using data from remaining region of the image. Depending on several applications there are number of inpainting techniques available. The major aim of this paper is to do a comparative study on these techniques to understand and criticize the effectiveness of each.
Key-words: Digital image inpainting, PDE, Image painting.
[1]. M. Bertalmio, G. Sapiro, V. Caselles, and C. Ballester. Image inpainting. In Proceedings of ACM Conf. Comp. Graphics (SIGGRAPH), pages 417{424, New Orleans, USA, July 2000.
[2]. James Hays and Alexei A Efros. Scene completion using millions of Graphics (SIGGRAPH 2007), 26(3), 2007.
[3]. Iddo Drori, Daniel Cohen-Or, and Hezy Yeshurun. Fragment - based image completion. In Proceedings of ACM Conf. Comp. Graphics (SIGGRAPH), volume 22, pages 303{312, July 2003.
[4]. Photographs. ACM Transactions on Hitoshi Yamauchi, JÄorg Haber, and Hans-Peter Seidel. Image restoration using multiresolution texture synthesis and image inpainting. In Computer Graphics International (CGI 2003), pages 120{125, Tokyo, Japan, July 2003. IEEE.
[5]. T. F. Chan, S. H. Kang, and J. Sheen, "Euler's elastic and curvature based inpainting," SIAM J. Appl. Math., vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 564–592
Paper Title :: Comparison between Touch Gesture and Pupil Reaction to Find Occurrences of Interested Item in Mobile Web Browsing
Author Name :: Shohe Ito || Yusuke Kajiwara || Fumiko Harada || Hiromitsu Shimakawa
Country :: Japan
Page Number :: 37-46
Web pages are full of interesting items people have never got familiar with. Mobile users often encounter new items interesting them, when they are Web browsing with their smartphones and tablet PCs. They usually find the new interesting items fro m pinpoint information such as one piece of phrase. To identify interests of web users, many existing methods utilize logs of Web pages the users visited. They cannot identify items the users get interested for the first time. This paper proposes two methods to estimate new pinpoint items interesting the users. One is the method with touch operations to estimate interested items. The other is the method with pupil reactions to estimate them. A part of a web page a user looks at is regarded as their interested items when touch operations or pupil reactions make a response relating on their interests. The methods can deal with users' interests, because touch operations and pupil reactions show their current interests. Users are able to enjoy the services provided according to their estimated pinpoint and current interests after the estimation of the interested items. When the proposed method with touch gestures estimates interested items, we calculated the precision, the recall and the F-measure for every subject. The mean of the precision, the recall and the F-measure are 0.691, 0.491, and 0.522, respectively. Similarly, when the proposed method with pupil reactions estimates interested items, we calculated the precision, the recall and the F-measure for every subject. The mean of the precision, the recall and the F-measure are 0.856, 0.426, and 0.483, respectively. Additionally, we focus on the evaluation results of each user. We discuss which methods should be used in each case.
Key-words: Interest, Mobile Terminal, Pupil Movement, Recommendation, Touch Gest
[1]. Michael Pazzani and Daniel Billsus, Learning and Revising User Profiles: The Identification of Interesting Web Sites, Machine Learning - Special issue on multistrategy learning, Vol.27, Issue 3,June 1997, pp.313-331.
[2]. Daniel Billsus and Michael Pazzani, User Modeling for Adaptive News Access, User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, Vol.10, Issue 2-3,2000, pp.147-180.
[3]. Kai Yu, Anton Schwaighofer, Volker Tresp, Xiaowei Xu and Hans-Peter Kriegel, Probabilistic Memory-Based Collaborative Filtering, IEEE Transaction on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Vol.16, Issue 1, January 2004, pp.56-69.
[4]. Android OEM profitability, and the most surprising number from Q4's smartphone market: http://www.microtechco.com/android-oem-profitability-and-the-most-surprising-number-from-q4s-smartphone-market/ (accessed on November 11, 2015)
[5]. The Telegraph, Smartphones hardly used for calls: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/mobile-phones/9365085/Smartphones-hardly-used-for-calls.html (accessed on November 11, 2015)
Paper Title :: A Survey On Secrecy Preserving Multi-keyword Matching Technique On Cloud For Encrypted Data
Author Name :: Revathy S || Gopu Darsan
Country :: India
Page Number :: 47-50
This paper provide data privacy in cloud in encrypted form. And that encrypted data searching through fuzzy technique. Multi-keyword fuzzy search can afford the misspelling which lead to larger index file scan and higher index complexity. This scheme is secure, efficient and accurate because of novel multi-keyword fuzzy search scheme by exploiting the locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) technique. Fuzzy matching is performed through search algorithm design.
Key-words: Cloud computing, searchable encryption, privacy-preserving, fuzzy keyword search, ranked index.
[1]. D. Song, D. Wagner, and A. Perrig, "Practical techniques for searches on encrypted data," S&P 2000, vol. 8, pp. 44–55, 2000.
[2]. W. Sun, B. Wang, N. Cao, M. Li, W. Lou, T. Hou, and H. Li, "Privacy preserving multi-keyword text search in the cloud supporting similarity based ranking," in ASIACCS 2013, May 2013.
[3]. N. Cao, C. Wang, M. Li, K. Ren, and W. Lou, "Privacy-preserving multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted cloud data," INFOCOM 2011, pp. 829–837, 2011.
[4]. C. Wang, N. Cao, J. Li, K. Ren, and W. Lou, "Secure ranked keyword search over encrypted cloud data," ICDCS 2010, pp. 253–262, 2010.
[5]. M. Li, S. Yu, K. Ren, and W. Lou, "Securing personal health records in cloud computing: Patient-centric and fine-grained data access control in multi-owner settings," in Secure Comm 2010, Singapore, September 7-9 2010.
Author Name :: Didei, I. S. || Oki, A. O. || Akana, T. S.
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 51-55
Exploring the Geotechnical properties of soil in Amassoma, Bayelsa state to determine how soil behaviour influences the suitability of the soil for construction purpose. Soil classification indexes can be used to determine engineering properties such as drainage, compression and expansion characteristics of the soil. 6 soil samples collected at regular intervals of 1m, 2m, 2m, 4m, 5m and 6m was used for this investigation. Samples were subjected to laboratory analysis to determine their index properties. Sieve analysis test carried out showed in samples collected at 1m to 3m was composed of 70% sand and silt and less than 5% fines with no gravel content, samples collected at 4m and 5m was composed of 60% clay and silt and less than 5% sand, no gravel content was observed. The results from Atterberg experiment showed that the soil Liquid Limit(LL) for samples 1-3 ranges from 30.005-55.04%, Plastic Limit(PL) 24.42%-28.37% and Plastic Index(PI) 21.20%-21.50% while sample 4-6 is in the range of 50.42%-54.04% for Liquid Limit(LL), 30.53%-30.69% for Plastic Limit(PL) and 19.20%-19.25% for Plastic Index(PI). The moisture content ranges from 25.73%-38.265 for sample 1-3 and 29.19%-31.88% for sample 4-6 respectively. The results revealed that the Amassoma soil varies in their characteristics and pattern of distribution with respect to depth. The soil type in Amassoma is classified as siltysand, medium to high plasticity comprises inorganic silts and inorganic elastic clay based on the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). This implies that the Amassoma soil is highly compressed and therefore is recommended for use for construction purposes.
Key-words: Soil Classification, Sieving, Atterberg Limit, Unified Soil Classification System
[1]. Akopkodje (1989). Preliminary studies on the charateristics of the nigerdaltasubsoil. Engineering geology no. PP 247-257
[2]. Allen J.R.L. (1968). Coastal geomorphology of eastern Nigerian beach, ridge, Barrier Island and vegetated tidal flat. Geol. Mijabouw vol. 44pp.21
[3]. ASTM D2487-10.2010, standard practice for classification of soil for engineering purposes.(Unified soil classification system).American society for testing of material, pennysylvanian USA.
[4]. Nwankwoala, H.O and Amadi, A.N (2013) geotechnical investigation of sub-soil and Roak Characteristics in parts of shiroro-muya-chanchaga Area of Niger State, Nigeria. Internation journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, vil.6(1):8-17
[5]. Oke, S.A and Amadi, A.N (2008).An assessment of the geotechnical properties of the sub- soil of parts of federal University of Technologfy, minna, Gidankwano Campus, for foundation design and construction. Journal of science, Education and Technology, vo.1 (2):87-102.
Paper Title :: Analysis of Wind Power Density inNinava Governorate / IRAQ
Author Name :: Dr. Waleed || I .J. AL-RijaboFatin || M.Hamam
Country :: Iraq
Page Number :: 56-65
Wind energy is renewable andenvironment friendly, which can be connected for various uses. A precise knowledge of wind energy regime is a pre-requisite for the efficient planning and implementation of any wind energy project. The main purpose of this paper is to perform an investigation on the wind energy potential inNinava Governorate in the northern area of Iraq. Therefore, in this study, wind data collected over a period ofnearly three decades at five different locations in order to figure out the wind energy potential in this region. The data from selected stations were analyzed using the two-parameters of Weibull probability distribution.
Key-words: Weibull distribution, Wind power density, Weibull parameter, Wind
[1]. Albuhairi,Mahyoub H,(2006),"Assessment And Analysis of Wind in Taiz-Republic of Yemen "Ass. Univ. Bull.Environ.Res.Vol.9 No.2.
[2]. 2- Temitope R Ayodele ,Adisa A Jimoh, Josiah L Munda, John Agee )2012),"Statistical Analysis of Port Elizabeth using Weibull parameters". Journalof Energy in Southern Africa .Vol.23 No.2.
[3]. SalahaddinA.AhmedMeeran A. Omer ,andAwni .Abdulhad, (2012), "Analysis Of Wind Power Density In Azmer Mountain(Sulaimani Region-North Iraq Mustansariyah University/Baghdad,Vol. 2, Issue5 ,pp.1403-1407.
[4]. Veysel Yilmaz , H. ErayCelik,(2008), "A statistical Approach to The Wind Speed Distribution: The Case of Gelibolu Region". Dogus Universities Dergisi ,9 (1),122- 132.
[5]. 5- HapseManik M.1, A.G. Thosar , Sanjay M. Shinde and Satish A. Markad , ( 2011) , Wind Energy Validation Using Available Wind Potential , ACEEE Int. J. on Communication, Vol. 02, No. 01
Copyright © 2015 IJLRET. All Right Reseverd Home   Editorial Board   Current Issue   Contact Us