IJLRET IJLRET provides individual hard copy of certificates to all authors after online publication. w.e.f. 01/11/2015
Log in || Register editor@ijlret.com
IJLRET Menu

Vol. 2, No. 2 [February 2016]:


Paper Title :: ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT WAYS OF CROSSTALK MEASUREMENT IN GSM NETWORK
Author Name :: M. Aderinola || B. Abovie || F. Okosi || I. Daniel || G.F. Odubo
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 01-05
Crosstalk is one of the problems that affect the performance operation of global system mobile (GSM) network. Among the effect of crosstalk are call mute, call drop, wire propagation delay, dynamic power dissipation etc. Crosstalk is an undesirable signal arising due to the coupling capacitances between adjacent interconnecting wires and measured in decibel. In this paper some literature were reviewed and different ways of measuring crosstalk such as Near end croosstalk (NEXT), far end crosstalk (FEXT), Power sum crosstalk (PSNEXT) and alien crosstalk (AXT) were analyzed.
Keywords: crosstalk, NEXT, FEXT, PSNEXT, AXT
[1]. Achira Pal, Tarak Nath Mandal, Abhinandan Khan, Rajat Kumar Pal, Alak Kumar Datta, Atal Chaudhuri, "A Review on Crosstalk Avoidance and MinimizationinVLSI Systems", International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering." Volume 5, Issue 3, March 2015
[2]. Devi Sivaraman and Neeraj Kr. Shukla, "Adaptive Algorithms Based Cross Talk Reduction Techniques Using Efficient Multipliers in VerilogHDL", IACSIT International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 6, December 2014
[3]. Keang-Po Ho and Joseph M. Kahn, "Methods for Crosstalk Measurement and Reduction in Dense WDM Systems, Journal of Light Waves Technology." Vol.14, No. 6, June 1996.
[4]. Salah Elrofai and AbdeenAbdelkareem "Crosstalk Improvement of Array Waveguide Grating Based on Different Channels (64) Spacing", International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering. Vol. 3, Issue 4, April 2015.
[5]. Reis, Jacklyn D., Miguel V. Drummond, António L. Teixeira, Rogério N. Nogueira, Paulo Monteiro, Satoshi Shinada, Naoya Wada, and Giorgio Maria Beleffi. "Experimental Demonstration of a Nonlinear Effects Crosstalk Minimization Algorithm." In National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, p. JThA32. Optical Society of America, 2010.

Paper Title :: A SURVEY ON DIFFERENT REVIEW MINING TECHNIQUES
Author Name :: Saranya raj.s || Soumya murali
Country :: India
Page Number :: 06-09
Data mining is an inter disciplinary sub field of computer science. It is the computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets ("big data") involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems. The overall goal of the data mining process is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use. Aside from the raw analysis step, it involves database and data management aspects, data preprocessing, model and inference considerations, interestingness metrics, complexity considerations, postprocessing of discovered structures, visualization, and online updating. Data mining is the analysis step of the "knowledge discovery in databases" process.
KEYWORDS : Recommendation systems, label propagation, collaborative filtering, random walks
[1]. M. Hu and B. Liu, "Mining and summarizing customer reviews," in Proc. 10th ACM SIGKDD Int. Conf. Knowl. Discovery Data Mining, Seattle, WA, USA, 2004, pp. 168–177. 4
[2]. F. Li, S. J. Pan, O. Jin, Q. Yang, and X. Zhu, "Cross domain co extraction of sentiment and topic lexicons," in Proc. 50th Annu. Meeting Assoc. Comput. Linguistics, Jeju, Korea, 2012, pp. 410 419.
[3]. L. Zhang, B. Liu, S. H. Lim, and E. O'BrienStrain, "Extracting and ranking product features in opinion documents," in Proc. 23th Int. Conf. Comput. Linguistics, Beijing, China, 2010, pp. 1462–1470.
[4]. K. Liu, L. Xu, and J. Zhao, "Opinion target extraction using word based translation model," in Proc. Joint Conf. Empirical Methods Natural Lang. Process. Comput. Natural Lang. Learn., Jeju, Korea, Jul. 2012, pp. 1346–1356.
[5]. G. Qiu, L. Bing, J. Bu, and C. Chen, "Opinion word expansion and target extraction through double propagation," Comput. Linguistics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 9– 27, 2011.

Paper Title :: Extraction of Farming Work Rules to Improve Crop Quality with Multiple Regression Analysis
Author Name :: Sunao Nakanishi || Yusuke Kajiwara || Dinh Dong Phuong || Hiromitsu Shimakawa
Country :: Japan
Page Number :: 10-19
Japanese farmer typically cultivate crop relying on such as their intuition and experience. In this case, the farmer sometimes fails the cultivation of high quality crop. For this reason, the farmer needs quantitative farm work rules. The rule makes from quantitative information of fields, crop and farming works. In this paper, we propose a system to assist the farmer to show the farming work rule for improving crop quality. The system extracts the farming work rule by multiple regression analysis and step wise stepwise regression. Response variable includes farming work information and explanatory variables include field and crop information. The system calculates a weight to compare the extracted rules based on standard rule which improves high quality crop. The quantitative farming rule enables the farmer to reduce a risk of the failure and cultivate high quality crop. We experimented cultivation of Japanese mustard spinach to extract watering, fertilization, culling, earth upping and pesticide spraying rules. The result shows that the coefficient of determination of farming work rule is high if the subjects have clear farming work rule. We considered the explanatory variables and the weight to confirm that these are correct or not.
KEYWORDS -agriculture, machine learning, multiple regression analysis, ICT, data mining
[1] H. Mineno, et.al, Development of a wireless sensor network for visualizing agricultural knowledge, Intelligent Decision Technologies, 4(4), 2010, 277-284.
[2] S. Tsubota, S. Yamamoto, T. Teshina, S. Hayashi, Estimation of the Number of Strawberries for a Movable Bench System, Shokubutsu Kankyo Kogaku, 27(3),152-161, 2015,
[3] S. Kazunori, Plant and Vegetation Monitoring Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Industrial Applications of Laser Remote Sensing, 99-114, 2012,
[4] A. Matese, S.F. Di Gennaro, A. Zaldei, L. Genesio, F.P. Vaccari, A wireless sensor network for precision viticulture: The NAV system, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 69(1), 51-58, 2009
[5] P.K.S.C. Jayasinghe,et.al., Development of a Fieldwork Reminder System to Help Field Management, World Conference on Agricultural Information, Atsugi, Tokyo, 1095-1099, 2008

Paper Title :: AN OVERVIEW TO COGNITIVE RADIO SPECTRUM SHARING
Author Name :: Shahu Chikhale || Sagar Hate || Shashank Chutke
Country :: India
Page Number :: 20-25
Today we deal with growing demands of wireless broadband access, which further goes on increasing. Problem of under utilization of licensed spectrum motivates us to find out different techniques to improve the efficiency of spectrum usages. Here in this paper we discuss an overview through different shades of spectrum sharing. Which deals with cognitive radio meant to provide a better technique to fulfill the utilization of radio frequency spectrum? How primary and secondary user i.e. licensed and unlicensed allocates the spectrum without degrading its own performance. Self organizing networks (SON) are essential for complicated cellular networks. Using this technology we are able to organize and optimize energy, expenditure and performance.
Keywords: CR- Cognitive Radio, SON- Self organizing networks, MANET, WSN- Wireless sensor network, HWN- Hybrid wireless network, etc.
[1]. Chao Zhai, Wei Zhang and Guoqiang Mao, IEEE, "Cooperative Spectrum Sharing Between Cellular and Ad-Hoc Networks", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ONWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 13, NO. 7, JULY 2014 .
[2]. Brett Kaufman, Jorma Lilleberg and Behnaam Aazhang, IEEE," Spectrum Sharing Scheme Between Cellular Users and Ad-hoc Device-to-Device Users", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 12, NO. 3, MARCH 2013.
[3]. Leonard H. Grokop and David N. C. Tse, IEEE, "Spectrum Sharing Between Wireless Networks", IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 18, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2010.
[4]. Varaka Uday Kanth, Kolli Ravi Chandra ,Rayala Ravi Kumar, "Spectrum Sharing In Cognitive Radio Networks", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue4- April 2013
[5]. Bodepudi Mounika, Kolli Ravi Chandra, Rayala Ravi Kumar, "Spectrum Sensing Techniques and Issues in Cognitive Radio", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue4- April 2013

Paper Title :: A Quantitative Analysis of 802.11 ah Wireless Standard
Author Name :: Shanmuga Sundaram B
Country :: India
Page Number :: 26-29
Wireless Networks have become an essential part of our life. Like all other computing devices they are under a constant evolution. While there are many Wi-Fi standards defined for every aspect of wireless communication, we tend to stick to the generic 802.11 standard for general analysis purposes. Getting a deep dive into other standards is important for us to get an understanding on how this technology is implemented and how it helps in improving our communication standards day by day .With a clear understanding of the existing wireless technologies we will be able to understand the future improvements which are in pipeline and which can make a lot of difference to the way we communicate. The objective of this paper is to address one such standard 802.11 ah also called as Wi-Fi HaLow and how it differs from the traditional wireless standards we have been using.
Keywords – Wi-Fi HaLow, 802.11, IoT, M2M, FSPL
Websites:
[1]. https://www.qualcomm.com/invention/research/projects/wi-fi-evolution/80211ah
[2]. http://mwrf.com/site-files/mwrf.com/files/uploads/2015/02/RF_Essentials_TABLE1-big.gif
[3]. http://mwrf.com/active-components/what-s-difference-between-ieee-80211af-and-80211ah
[4]. http://mwrf.com/active-components/what-s-difference-between-ieee-80211af-and-80211ah?page=2
Journal Papers:
[5] Aust, S. ; NEC Commun. Syst., Ltd., Kawasaki, Japan ; Prasad, R.V. ; Niemegeers, I.G.M.M., IEEE 802.11ah: Advantages in standards and further challenges for sub 1 GHz Wi-Fi, Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on 10-15 June, 2012, 6885-6889

Paper Title :: Experimental Comparative Analysis of Clay Pot Refrigeration Using Two Different Designs of Pots
Author Name :: Prabodh Sai Dutt R
Country :: India
Page Number :: 30-35
Refrigeration using clay pots has gained prominence in many countries today. These techniques provide refrigeration by evaporative cooling principle without consuming any electricity and are environment friendly. Off late many improvements in design and materials are being made to popularize this natural refrigeration technique. In this paper experiments are conducted on two such designs and the results compared. One of the design is the popular pot-in-pot or Zeer pot design and the second design is one in which an upper chamber is integrated with pot to store water required for evaporation, thereby eliminating the effect of thermal conductivity of sand used in Zeer Pots.
KEYWORDS - Clay pots, Evaporative cooling, Refrigeration, Thermal conductivity, Zeer Pot
[1] Zhiyin Duan, Changhong Zhan, Xingxing Zhang, Mahmud Mustafa, Xudong Zhao, Behrang Alimohammadisagvand, Ala Hasan, Indirect evaporative cooling: Past, present and future potentials, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2012, 6823 – 6850.
[2] George Dales, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, Leslie Alcock, Excavations at Mohenjo Daro, Pakistan: The Pottery, UPenn Museum of Archaeology, 1986.
[3] Oluwasola, Oluwemimo, Pot-in-pot Enterprise: Fridge for the Poor, GIM Case Study No. B080. New York, United Nations Development Programme, 2011.
[4] Fifth National Biennial Grassroots Technological Innovation and Traditional Knowledge Awards, 2009, 43-48.
[5] Kamaldeen O. S, Anugwom Uzoma, Olyemi F.F and Awagu E.F, Effect of NSPRI tin-in-pot compared with pot-in-pot evaporative cooler on the stored fruits, International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2 (1), 2013, 63-69.

Paper Title :: IMPACT OF MACHINE TOOLS UTILIZATION ON STUDENTS' SKILL ACQUISITION IN METALWORK TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT, KANO STATE TECHNICAL COLLEGES
Author Name :: ADAMU YUSUF SAWABA
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 36-39
The study focused on the impact of machine tools utilization on students' skill acquisition in metalwork technology department, Kano state technical colleges.The study adopted a descriptive survey design that used a 10 item structured questionnaire for data collection. However, the population of the study was 260 respondents and random sampling was used as sampling technique. The z- test statistic using theSPSS package was used to analyze the data by testing the two hypotheses of this study at 0.05 level of significance. The study found there are low or rather small quantities of machine tools in Metalwork technology in Kano State technical colleges. The impact of machine tools utilization on students' skill acquisition in Kano state technical colleges is moderate in all major technical skills areas identified and the teachers' background in those technical skills areas are either obsolete or defective. Based on these findings, the researcher recommended that teachers and students should be encouraged by providing the needed resources, condition and enabling environment by the authorities for them to be equipped with needed technical skills for effective utilization of difference types of machine tools.
[1]. Ademola, R. (2013). Technology Education in Secondary School in Nigerian Policy: programme and implementation JONNAT. Ibadan: Estacy Publisher.
[2]. FRN (2004). National Policy on Education NERDC Press, Yaba, Lagos.
[3]. Makoju, E.I. (1998). Strategies for improving the practical content in Technology Education at the tertiary level. Spectrum journal, 1 (2) 34 – 41.
[4]. McGraw-Hill Book Company (1982). McGraw-Hill Lexicon Webster Dictionary, 2. New York.
[5]. Olaitan, S.O. et al (2007). Curriculum development and management in technical vocational education. Onitsha: Cape Publishers.

Paper Title :: POTENTIALS OF RICE-HUSK ASH AS A SOIL STABILIZER
Author Name :: Sudipta Adhikary || Koyel Jana
Country :: India
Page Number :: 40-48
Rice Husk Ash is a pozzolanic material that could be potentially used in Soil stabilization ,though it is reasonably produced and freely available. When Rice-Husk is burnt under controlled temperature, ash is produced an about 17% -25% of Rice Husk‟s weight. This paper presents the results of experimental study carried out by the virgin soil sample was taken alongside the pond of "Jadavpur University"(Jadavpur Campus), Classified as CI( clay of medium plastic) as per AASTHO soil classification system and was stabilized with 5%,10%,15% & 20 % of Rice Husk Ash(RHA) by weight of the dry virgin soil. The improvement of the Geo- Technical properties of the fine grain soil with varying percentages of RHA was done with the facilitate of various standardize laboratory tests. The testing program conducted on the virgin soil samples by mixed with specified percentages of rice-husk materials, it is included Atterberg limits, "California Bearing Ratio(CBR)", "Unconfined Compressive Strength(U.C.S)" , and "Standard Proactor test ".It was found that a general decrease in the maximum dry density(MDD) and increase in optimum moisture content(OMC) is shown with increase of the percentages (%) of RHA content and there was also a significant improvement shown in CBR and UCS values with the increase in percentages(%) of RHA.
Key Words: UCS, CBR, RHA,OMC,MDD
[1]. Akhtar, J.N. , Alam,J , Ahmad,S(2008). "The influence of randomly oriented hair fibre and lime on the CBR value of Dadri flyash."Article Department of Civil Engineering Aligarh University.
[2]. AllenLunzhuli.R.KerryRowe(2008)."Effects of viscous behavior of geosynthetic reinforcement And foundation soils on the performance of reinforced embankments". Geotextile and geomembranes Vol 126, pp: 317- 334.
[3]. Athanasopoulou, A. (2014)."Addition of lime and fly ash to improve highway sub-grade soils". Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 26(4), 773-775.
[4]. Arvind Kumar., Deepak Gupta., (2015) "Behavior of Cement –stabilized fiber-reinforced Pond Ash, Rice Husk Ash-soil mixtures". ELESVIER. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, pp-1-9.
[5]. Aparna Roy(2014),."Soil Stabilization using Rice husk-Ash and Cement", International Journal of Civil Engineering Research,Vol-5,Number 1,pp-49-54.

Paper Title :: Upper-Nonconvergent Objects Segmentation Method on Single Depth Image for Rescue Robots
Author Name :: Hoang Vu || Seoungjae Cho || Seongjo Lee || Kyungeun Cho
Country :: Republic of Korea
Page Number :: 49-56
In this study, we proposed an algorithm to segment a special type of objects which we called the Upper-Nonconvergent Objects (UNOs) from the depth image. This type of objects plays an important role in our system. In that system, we use a robust algorithm based on height map to segment objects in three dimensional data. However, this algorithm cannot be segment the Upper-Nonconvergent Objects. Our algorithm works on two dimensional depth image which produced from 3D data. We first segment all the objects from the depth image including the ground using splitting and merging approach, then use morphological erosion method to extract the boundary of every objects, finally, we extract the Upper-Nonconvergent Objects using mathematical requirements which we defined. Information extracted from this algorithm can be used as additional process to the whole algorithms works on three dimensional data.
KEYWORDS - Upper-Nonconvergent Objects; UNO; height map; depth image; splitting and merging;
[1]. A. Hoover, G. Baptiste, X. Jiang, P. J. Flynn, H. Bunke, D. B. Goldgof, K. Bowyer , D. W. Eggert, A. Fitzgibbon, R. B. Fisher, "An experimental comparison of range image segmentation algorithms," IEEE Transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence, 1996
[2]. B. Enjarini, A. Gräser, "Planar Segmentation from Depth Images using Gradient of Depth Feature" IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS); 2012
[3]. C. Plagemann, V. Ganapathi, D. Koller, and S. Thrun, "Real-time Identification and Localization of Body Parts from Depth Images" Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2010 IEEE International Conference on, 3108-3113
[4]. J. Rock, T. Gupta, J. Thorsen, J. Gwak, D. Shin, D. Hoiem, "Completing 3D Object Shape from One Depth Image" Proc. IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2015
[5]. J. Salas and C. Tomasi, "People Detection using Color and Depth Images" Proc. of Mexican Conference on Pattern Recognition (MCPR), pp. 127 – 135 (2011)

Paper Title :: Experimental Implementation of Odd-Even Scheme for Air Pollution Control in Delhi, India
Author Name :: Pramod R. Chaudhari || Sanyogita R. Verma || Dhiraj Kumar Singh
Country :: India
Page Number :: 57-65
Delhi, the Capital of India, is having worst air pollution due to rapid rate of urbanization, construction activities, increasing population, and increasing number of vehicles. Number of measures implemented by Delhi Government to control air pollution prior to 2000 gave favorable results during 2000 to 2006. But now, the air pollution has again increased to serious levels. Therefore, Delhi Government recently implemented the Odd-Even Scheme to restrict plying of even and odd number private vehicles on odd and even dates respectively, for 15 days from January 1 to 15, 2016. Present investigation revealed that the air pollution increased in the first week of January, due to low wind speed and low mixing height. However, in the second week air pollution level reduced considerably as compared to air pollution levels during pre - and post - scheme period and similar period in previous year 2015. The success of this scheme proved its utility as one of the tools to reduce air pollution in urban environment, along with other benefits namely easy and fast flow of traffic, no traffic jams, reduced travel time, fuel saving etc. After scheme period, the air pollution levels increased again, indicating success of odd-even scheme. This experiment succeeded in limited way due to shorter period of implementation and other active sources of air pollution. If the scheme is implemented for longer duration in integrated way, it may succeed in reducing air pollution in Delhi and other cities.
Key Words: Delhi, Air Pollution, Odd-Even Scheme; Emission Control
[1]. Pramod R. Chaudhari, D.G. Gajghate and S. Dheeraj Kumar, (2015) Studies on respirable particulate matter and heavy metal pollution of ambient air in Delhi, India, American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), 4(12), 2015, 45-57.
[2]. World Health Organization, Ambient (Outdoor) Air Pollution in Cities Database 2014. http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/database/cities/en/
[3]. C. Verma & D.K. Deshmukh, The ambient air and noise quality in India during Diwali festival: a review, Recent Research in science and Technology, 6(1), 2014, 203-210.
[4]. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Health / Particulate Matter /Air & Radiation, EPA Gov. 17 November 2010.
[5]. CPCB, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, Central Pollution Control Board Notification, New Delhi, no. B-29016/20/90/PCI.L dated 18th November 2009.

Paper Title :: INVESTIGATION INTO THE STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF REINFORCEMENT STEEL RODS IN SOKOTO MARKET, SOKOTO STATE NIGERIA
Author Name :: Tunde Abioye || Olawumi Billihaminu A
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 66-69
Reinforcement has been identified as a method of increasing the strength properties of reinforced concrete structural members. Steel rods of different diameters have also been prescribed for use in reinforcing our concrete which up till today has being in use. However, for any reinforcing steel rod to be adequate for its action as reinforcing material, it should satisfy basic characteristics such as yield strength, ultimate strength, percentage elongation and nominal diameter. Steel rods are used everyday in different construction sites in Sokoto city but their suitability is still not confirmed. This therefore prompted the researcher in selecting 10 samples of Y10 and Y16 for strength analysis. It was observed that none of the selected samples meet the nominal diameter criteria as average diameters were 9.68mm for Y10 and 15.76mm for Y16mm. Average values of yield strength were 448 N/mm2 and 409 N/mm2 as against 460 N/mm2 dictated by the BS8110 and BS4449. Percentage elongation was 15% for both Y10 and Y16. It was therefore recommended that the appropriate authorities should enforce the laws guiding production and distribution of reinforcement in the country for optimum safety.
Keywords; BS Standard, Concrete, Nominal Diameter, Reinforcement, Yield Strength.
[1]. Alabi A. G. F and Onyeji L.I (2010); Analysis and Comparative Assessment of Locally Produced Reinforcing Steel Bars for Structural Purposes. USEP: Journal of Research Information in Civil Engineering,Vol.7,No.2,
[2]. Arther, H. N., David, D and Charles, W. D. (2004). Design of Concrete Structures, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi, pp.51 – 58.
[3]. British Standards, BS 4449. (1997). Reinforcement Bar, Jentayu Venture, www.jentayu venture.com
[4]. Callister, William D. Jr. (1997). Material Science and Engineering: An Introduction; John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, pp.108- 133, 199 – 202.
[5]. Kutz M. (2002). Role of Alloying Elements in Steel, Hand Book of Materials Sellection, Kutz Myer Associates, John Wiley and Sons Inc., pp. 45 – 65.


Paper Title :: TESTING OF VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE IN SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL
Author Name :: P.V. Vigneshwaran || S Ranjithkhumar
Country :: India
Page Number :: 01-08
A wind turbine is a rotary device that extracts energy from the wind. Any wind turbine comprises of three main components, namely: rotor, generator and structural support. Based on the alignment of their shafts of rotation, two types of turbines are designed – Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT). Although the VAWTs have been in use right from 200 BC, only in the recent times the availability of material and construction techniques has made the design attractive again. One such development is the inception of VAWTs with a helical twist. Helical turbines provide steadiness of aerodynamic force and torque, giving a smooth power distribution. In this paper the vertical axis wind turbine with V-type has higher efficiency compared with savonius wind turbine is developed and performances are measured.
KEYWORDS –sub-sonic, wind, vertical.

[1]. Feng-Zhu Tai (2013): Study on the analysis method for the vertical-axis wind turbines having Darrieus blades,Renewable Energy Vol. 54, 26-31.
[2]. Abdulkadir Ali (2012): Experimental and Computational Study of a Micro Vertical Axis Wind Turbine,Procedia Engineering, Vol. 49, 254 – 262.
[3]. Ian Ross (2011): Wind tunnel blockage corrections: Review and application to Savonius vertical-axis wind turbines,Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics Vol. 99, 523–538.
[4]. Gerald Muller (2009): Vertical axis resistance type wind turbines for use in buildings,Renewable Energy, Vol. 34, 1407–1412.
[5]. J. Bystryk (2011): Small wind turbine power control in intermittent wind gusts, Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics Vol. 99, 624–637.


Paper Title :: A REVIEW ON FRICTION STIR WELDING OF DISSIMILAR MATERIALS BETWEEN ALUMINIUM ALLOYS TO COPPER
Author Name :: D.ARAVINDKUMAR || A.BALAMURUGAN
Country :: India
Page Number :: 09-15
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process used for welding similar and dissimilar materials. The process is widely used because it produces sound welds and does not have common problems such as solidification and liquefaction cracking associated with the conventional welding techniques. The FSW of Aluminium and its alloys has been commercialised and recent interest is focused on joining dissimilar materials. FSW has inspired researchers to attempt joining dissimilar materials such as aluminium to copper which differ in properties and sound welds with none or limited intermetallic compounds has been produced. In this paper, we review the current research state of FSW between aluminium and copper with a focus on the resulting weld microstructure, Optimizing parameters and the tools to produce the welds and also the future research in this field of study.
Keywords --Aluminium, Copper, Friction Stir Welding, Intermetallic compounds, Microstructure.
[1] G. Elatharasan, V.S. Senthil Kumar. An experimental analysis and optimization of process parameter on friction stir welding of AA 6061-T6 aluminum alloy using RSM. Procedia Engineering 64 ( 2013 ) 1227 – 1234.
[2] S. Rajakumar, V. Balasubramanian. Establishing relationships between mechanical properties of aluminium alloys and optimised friction stir welding process parameters. Materials and Design 40 (2012) 17–35.
[3] PL. Threadgill‟,"Friction stir welds in aluminium alloys – preliminary microstructural assessment". TWI Bulletin, March/April 1997. Available from: http://www.twi.co.uk/newsevents/ bulletin/archive/pre-1998-articles/1997-articles/friction-stirwelds-in-aluminium-alloys-preliminary-microstructural assessment/ [Accessed April 2013]
[4] T. A. Mai, A C. Spowage, "Characterisation of dissimilar joints in laser welding of steel kovar, copper–steel and copper–aluminium". Materials Science and Engineering A, 2004, 374(1−2): 224−233.
[5] M. Di Paola., A. Falchero, S. Spigarelli. (Online), "Mechanical and microstructural characterisation of an aluminium friction stir welded butt joint": www.teksidaluminum.com/pdf/20-1-3.pdf (accessed on 27 October 2011).

Paper Title :: INVESTIGATION OF THERMO-ACOUSTIC EXCESS PARAMETERS OF BINARY LIQUID MIXTURE USING ULTRASONIC NON DESTRUCTIVE TECHNIQUE
Author Name :: Apurba M. Ghosh || J. N. Ramteke
Country :: India
Page Number :: 16-22
The acoustic parameters for binary liquid mixture namely n-hexane - tetrahydrofuran has been determined at four different temperatures. The excess acoustical parameters such as excess ultrasonic velocity (uE), excess viscosity (ƞE), excess adiabatic compressibility (βaE), excess intermolecular free length (LfE), excess free volume (VfE), excess acoustic impedance (ZE) and excess internal pressure (Πi) has been computed using the measured values of ultrasonic velocity, viscosity and density. The extent of interaction existing between component molecules has been found out in n-hexane and tetrahydrofuran system. The interaction parameters values have been out to be negative suggesting the presence of dipole - induced dipole interaction with increase in temperature.
Keywords: Binary mixture, ultrasonic velocity, adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, and internal pressure.
[1]. Pandey J D and Sukla A K., J. Pure Appl. Ultrason. 1993, 15, 537.
[2]. Riyazuddeen and Islam Nurul, J. Pure Appl. Ultrason. 1993, 15, 537.
[3]. Oswal S L, Oswal P and Phalak R P., J. Sol. Chem. 1998, 27, 507.
[4]. Rajasekhar J. and Naidu P R., J. Chem. Engg. Data 1996, 41, 373.
[5]. Arul G. and Palaniappan L., Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 2001, 39, 561.

Paper Title :: Electrolytic Method for Deactivation of Microbial Pathogens in Surface Water for Domestic Use
Author Name :: Piyush Mahore || Pramod R. Chaudhari || Pravin Charde
Country :: India
Page Number :: 23-33
Electrochemical or electrolytic disinfection is one of the emerging technologies for treating drinking water and wastewater. This method gained much attention, especially because of its practical feasibility as there is no need for addition of chemicals or generation of toxic byproducts. In addition to this, the operational cost is also low. This work is thus aimed at studying the deactivation of waterborne pathogens from lake water by electrolytic disinfection. The electrolytic disinfection unit (EDU) was designed and examined for efficiency of deactivation of microbial pathogens in raw lake water. The batch scale experiments were performed to investigate the effect of aluminum electrodes with direct current (D.C.) supply on the inactivation efficiency of index microorganisms and pathogens namely Total coliforms, Faecal coliforms, E. coli and Faecal streptococci and pathogens, namely Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. The optimum current intensity (Ampere (A)) and contact time for 80 to 95 % inactivation of pathogen indicators and pathogens were observed to be (1A 90 minutes) and (2A 90 minutes).
Key Words: Water, Disinfection, Electrolytic, Pathogen, Deactivation
[1]. WHO, Combating Waterborne Diseases at the Household Level, World Health Organization, 2007. Part 1. ISBN 9789241595223.
[2]. J. Diamond, The return of cholera, Discover, 1992, 60-66.
[3]. G. Patermarkis and E. Fountoukidis, Disinfection of water by electrochemical treatment, Water Research, 24(12), 1990, 1491-1496.
[4]. C.A. Martines-Huitle and E. Brillas. Electrochemical Alternatives for drinking water disinfection, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed, 47, 2008, 2-10.
[5]. Efi Tsolaki, Pitta Paraskevi, Evan Diamadopoulos, Electrochemical disinfection of simulated ballast water using Artemia salina as indicator, Chemical Engineering Journal, 156, 2010, 305-312.

Paper Title :: Crystal and molecular structure of Thiadiazole derivatives 5-[(4-Methoxybenzyl)sulfanyl]-2-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole
Author Name :: Vijaya V Shanbhag || Vasu K.VArjun Gowda || Bhaskar M
Country :: India
Page Number :: 34-41
The role of hydrogen bonds was found to be essential for the stabilization of conformationally strained molecules as well as for the packing density of such molecules in a crystal.The title molecule, C11 H12N2OS2, is twisted with a dihedral angle of 83.63 (12)° between the 1,3,4-thiadiazole and benzene rings. All H atoms were positioned geometrically and allowed to ride on their parent atoms, with d(C—H) = 0.93 Å for aromatic, 0.97 Å for CH2and 0.96 Å for CH3 atoms. The Uiso(H) values were constrained to be 1.5Ueq(C) for methyl H atoms and 1.2Ueq(C) for the remaining H atoms. A rotating group model was used for the methyl groups.The methoxy group deviates slightly from the attached benzene ring, with a C-C-O-C torsion angle of 4.2 (4)°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C-HN interactions and stacked along the c axis.
Key Words : *Torsion Angle *Mean (C-C) = 0.004 *R factor = 0.052 wR factor = 0.118Data-to-parameter ratio = 19.2
[1]. Carballo, S. A., da Silva, E. F., Santa-Rita, R. M., de Castro, S. L. & Fraga, C. A. M. (2004). Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 14, 5967–5970.
[2]. Web of Science CrossRefPubMed CASLi, S., Zhang, J., Jia, X., Gao, Y. & Wang, W. (2011). Acta Cryst. E67, o681.
[3]. Web of Science CSD CrossRef IUCr Journals Nakagawa, Y., Nishimura, K., Izumi, K., Kinoshita, K., Kimura, T. & Kurihara, N. (1996). J. Pestic. Sci. 21, 195–201.
[4]. CrossRef CASRigaku/MSC (2005). CrystalClear. Molecular Structure Corporation, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, Sheldrick, G. M. (2008). Acta Cryst. A64, 112–122
[5]. Web of Science CrossRef CAS IUCr Journals Wang, Y. G., Cao, L., Yan, J., Ye, W. F., Zhou, Q. C. & Lu, B. X. (1999). Chem. J. Chin. Univ. 20, 1903–1905. CAS The, H., Gao, Y. d& Wang, W. (2010). Acta Cryst. E66, o308

Paper Title :: UTILIZATION OF QUANTITY SURVEYORS' SKILLS IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA
Author Name :: E.O.E. Nnadi || U. Alintah-Abel
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 42-51
Quantity Surveyors are professionals who have been trained as construction cost consultants. They are the accountants in the construction industry. They can as well be referred as construction economists or cost engineers. They are in charge of planning and managing costs for construction projects from the start of a project to its completion. The high construction cost in Nigeria is quite alarming. The south eastern states of Nigeria are worst hit which call for assessment. The aim of this work is to ascertain the effect of the utilization of the services of Quantity surveyors in project execution in South east Nigeria. This was carried out by providing vital information on a general overview of the quantity surveyors roles to achieve the best quality and value within the client‟s specifications. Oral interview, literature review and investigative method of data collection were adopted. The result was presented using descriptive method of charts and tables. Finding revealed that there are many qualified quantity surveyors at every work categories in the region; the skills of these professionals are not well utilized. The region cost of project execution is arbitrarily higher due to poor or no documentation, inaccurate quantities and corruption. It is recommended therefore that the skill of Quantity surveyors should be sought by the government and the private sectors (developer & contractors) in the south east to increase profit, ensure risk reduction, capital flight and improve the dwindling contribution of the sector to the region‟s economic growth.
Key words: Quantity Surveyors, Utilization, Construction industry, Projects.
[1]. Ashworth (2004); cost studies of building 4th Edition, England; pearson prentice hall.
[2]. Association of South African Quantity Surveyors (ASAQS), a Guide for Quantity Surveying Appointments 2006
[3]. Bowles, J.E & Le Roux, G.K.( 1992). Quantity Surveying: An Introduction. 2nd ed. Centrahil: Q.S Publications.
[4]. Chung, C.K. (2000) Prospect of Hong Kong QS Firms in China. Degree of Bachelor of Science in Quantity Surveying Thesis, City University of Hong Kong.
[5]. Cornick, T. & Osbon, K. 1994. A study of the contractor‟s quantity surveying practice during the construction process. Construction Management and Economics,12:107-111

Paper Title :: PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CHITOSAN AS AN ADSORBENT FOR REMAZOL RED
Author Name :: Shaikat Chandra Dey || Mohammad Al-Amin || Taslim Ur Rashid || Md. Zakir Sultan || Md. Ashaduzzaman || Mithun Sarker || Sayed Md. Shamsuddin
Country :: Bangladesh
Page Number :: 52-62
In this present study, waste prawn shell was used as raw material for chitosan preparation. Various analytical tools e.g. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed for the characterization of prepared chitosan. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used for the determination of thermal stability of chitosan. For the determination of elemental composition, CHNS elemental analyzer was used. The chitosan was applied as an adsorbent for a reactive textile dye, Remazol Red. Batch studies were performed to investigate the effects of pH, contact time and initial dye concentration. Chitosan showed an adsorption capacity of 313.4 mg/g at pH 3.0 and a desorption ratio of 0.967. Experimental adsorption data showed good agreement with Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetics. Therefore, it can be said that chitosan can be used economically as a potential adsorbent for Remazol Red.
Keywords: Chitosan, Remazol Red, Adsorption, Desorption.
[1]. C. O'Neill, F. R. Hawkes, D. L. Hawkes, N. D. Lourenço, H. M. Pinheiro and W. Delee, Colour in textile effluents–sources, measurement, discharge consents and simulation: a review, Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 74(11), 1999, 1009-1018.
[2]. A. A. Attia, B. S. Girgis and N. A. Fathy, Removal of methylene blue by carbons derived from peach stones by H3PO4 activation: batch and column studies, Dyes and Pigments, 76(1), 2008, 282-289.
[3]. M. Ghaedi, A. Hassanzadeh and S. N. Kokhdan, Multiwalled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents for the kinetic and equilibrium study of the removal of alizarin red S and morin, Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 56(5), 2011, 2511-2520.
[4]. Z. Yao, L. Wang and J. Qi, Biosorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution using a bioenergy forest waste: Xanthoceras sorbifolia seed coat, CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water, 37(8), 2009, 642-6488.
[5]. M. Gouamid, M. Ouahrani and M. Bensaci, Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of methylene blue from aqueoussolutions using date palm leaves, Energy Procedia, 36, 2013, 898-907.

Paper Title :: THE CONCEPT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AMONG SMES IN ZIMBABWE
Author Name :: FAITIRA MANUERE || TASARA MAJONI
Country :: ZIMBABWE
Page Number :: 63-71
The paper explores Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices by small to medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Chinhoyi District of Zimbabwe. Given the fact that SMEs play a significant role in the Zimbabwean economy, this research wishes to provide an insight into SME CSR practices. Within this scope, the objective is to identify CSR practices at the social economic and environmental levels, the motivations and the existing internal and external barriers which place restrictions on SME adoption of CSR practices and the nature of CSR practices in SMEs. A questionnaire survey was utilised to collect data from a sample of 400 SMEs randomly selected from manufacturing, commerce and service sectors of the economy. Of the 400 questionnaires distributed to various respondents, only 120 were completed and returned. The results of the research showed that the majority of the respondents were familiar with the concept of CSR and that SMEs practiced CSR in their own way. The majority of SMEs cited a number of reasons for doing CSR. The notable reason was that they wanted to promote good relations with customers. Both external and internal barriers to the adoption of CSR by SMEs existed. This research provides a better understanding of CSR practices by SMEs in Zimbabwe.
Key phrases: Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR Practices, external and internal barriers, stakeholders.
[1]. Aguilera, R. Rupp, D., Williams, C, and Ganapathi, J. 2007. "Putting the "S‟ in corporate social responsibility: A multilevel theory of social change in organisations" Academy of Management Review 32(3): 836-863.
[2]. Andreasen, A. R. (1996). Profits for non-profits: Find a corporate partner. Harvard Business Review, 74, 47-59.
[3]. Began, C. 2002. The legitimising effect, social and environmental disclosures. A theoretical foundation. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 15(3): 283-311.
[4]. Bown, H.R. (1953). Social responsibilities of the businessman. New York: Harper and Row.
[5]. Brown, D. J. And King J.B. 1982: Small Business ethics: Influences and perceptions, Journal of Small Business managements, Vol, 20.1 pp 11-18

Paper Title :: THERMOLUMINESCENCE PROPERTIES OF EU DOPED BAM PHOSPHOR
Author Name :: Vinit Kumar || Kapil Vats || R.B.S. Rawat || M.K.Dhasmana
Country :: India
Page Number :: 72-74
Bam Phosphors are good for use in lamps and displays but degradation and afterglow are a matter of concern. Many Researchers in India have done tremendous work in this field to obtained new phosphors. Developed in India are LIF, Dy, NaCl, Ca, LaPO4, Tb, NaCl, Tb, LiYF4 : U4+ CaSO4 : dY.LaPO4 : Ce and Quluminates in mono, dia and tri-valent doped forms. In present study the TL properties of f BaMgAl10O17 doped with impurities Eu has been examined in order to investigate the effect of impurities on TL – behavior of BaMg-alluminate and to find out the peak suitable for TL dosimetric application. One prominent peak was found after ϒ irradiation. The effect of different doses have been examined under identical experimental conditions. It is found that TL intensity increases linearly with increase in gamma dose(.1-1000Gy).
[1]. Azorin Nito Juan, Thermoluminescence and optical Characteristics of Europium-Doped Barium Sulphate, Radiate. Phys. Chem 51, 471-472 (1998).
[2]. Salah Numan, TL and Pl studies on CaSO4:Dy nanoparticles, Radiation Measurements, 41, 470-47 (2006).
[3]. Justel t et al. J of Luminescence, 101 195–210 (2003).
[4]. S.Oshio, T.Matsuoka, S.Tanaka, H. Kobayashi, J.Electochem. Soc. 145 (1998)
[5]. P.Dorenbos, Journal of Luminescence, 91, pp, 155-176, (2000).


Copyright © 2015 IJLRET. All Right Reseverd Home   Editorial Board   Current Issue   Contact Us