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Vol. 07, No. 09 [September 2021]

Paper Title :: A Parametric Investigation on the Bearing Capacity of Reinforced Granular Soil, Overlying Clay
Author Name :: Bajrang Mandal || Surya Kant Arya || Vikrama Pandey
Country :: India
Page Number :: 01-05
In the present study, an attempt has been made to comprehensively investigate the bearing capacity characteristics of shallow strip footing, placed on a geogrid reinforced granular soil and underlain by a soft clay deposit. A finite element limit analysis (FELA)approach has been used to obtain the upper bound value of the true collapse load. Investigation of several critical parameters, such as thickness of the sand layer, friction angle of the sand, and number of geogrid layers are investigated under a parametric framework and the results are presented in the form of charts. Based on the results obtained, the efficacy of installation of geogrids has been established and subsequently, their optimal spacing has been obtained. Present study would be highly beneficial to the practicing civil engineers while designing a shallow foundation over a granular soil, underlain by a weak clay soil layer.
Key Words: Bearing Capacity,FELA, Geogrids, Soft Clay
[1] K. Terzaghi,Theoretical soil mechanics. (Wiley, New York, 1943).
[2] G. G. Meyerhof, Some recent research on the bearing capacity of foundations,Can.Geotech.J, 1(1), 1963, 16–26.https://doi.org/10.1139/t63-003
[3] J.B. Hansen, A revised and extended formula for bearing capacity, Danish Geotechnical Institute Copenhagen, 1970, Bui. No. 28.
[4] A.S. Vesic,Analysisofultimateloadsofshallowfoundations, J. Soil Mech. Found. Div.99(1), 1973, 45–73.
[5] A. Anand and R. Sarkar, A probabilistic investigation on bearing capacity of unsaturated fly ash, J. Hazard. Toxic Radioact. Waste (ASCE), 24(4), 06020004, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.2153-5515.0000547


Paper Title :: A Journey Towards Next Generation: 6G
Author Name :: Saifullah || Umar Ajaib Khan || Zhi Ren || A.Azeem, RiazWaqar
Country :: China
Page Number :: 06-14
With the rapid proliferation of wireless technologies and the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) empowered wireless devices, the demands for high data rates, low latency, massive connectivity, and ubiquitous coverage are continually increasing. Since 5th Generation (5G) of cellular networks offer relatively lower data rates and latency than the requirements, therefore, world's giant companies and academia have started working beyond 5G and conceptualize their vision about the 6th Generation (6G). This paper envisions the need to move towards a new generation by carefully observing three primary aspects. Firstly, the technological gaps that the current 5G standards are facing are highlighted by specifying the pre-requisite for 6G. Secondly, exploiting the newly adopted AI-based potential services such ashologram, self-automated vehicles, 3D connectivity, etc. are discussed. Thirdly, investigating the new frequency spectrum resources for 6G, i.e., Terahertz (THz) and Visible Light Communication (VLC), that ensure high transmission rates across the networks. Furthermore, the key issues and challenges are also highlighted to explore the grand 6G vision.
Key Words: 6G, potential services, adaptive architecture, new spectrum resources.
[1] W. Mohr, ―The 5G Infrastructure Public-Private Partnership,‖ in Presentation in ITU GSC-19 Meeting, 2015.
[2] J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, ―What will 5G be?‖ IEEE Journal on selected areas in communications, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1065–1082, 2014.
[3] M. Simk and M.-O. Mattsson, ―5G Wireless Communication and Health EffectsA Pragmatic Review Based on Available Studies Regarding 6 to 100 GHz,‖ International journal of environmental research and public health, vol. 16, no. 18, p. 3406, 2019.
[4] P. Lin, Q. Song, and A. Jamalipour, ―Multidimensional cooperative caching in comp-integrated ultra-dense cellular networks,‖ IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2019.
[5] Q. Wu, G. Y. Li, W. Chen, D. W. K. Ng, and R. Schober, ―An overview of sustainable green 5G networks,‖ IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 72–80, 2017.
[6] Y. Yuan, Y. Zhao, B. Zong, and S. Parolari, ―Potential Key Technologies for 6G Mobile Communications,‖ arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.00730, 2019.


Paper Title :: Fundamentals for Obtaining New Probability Distribution Functions with Bayesian Inference with Gaussian and Near-Gaussian Behavior
Author Name :: M.Sc. José Roberto Zenteno Jiménez
Country :: Mexico
Page Number :: 15-30
The following study is a summary of the method with which they were used for the evaluation of the phenomena studied with the topics such as Gaussian Processes, Bayesian Inference, Extreme Value, Adjustment Of Probability Distribution Functions And Their Validations With Statistical Estimators.
Key Words: Extreme Value Theory, Random Distribution Functions, Maximum Likelihood Method.
[1]. Berger, J. O., Statistical Decision Theory and Bayesian Analysis, Springer Ser. Stat., 2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985.
[2]. Christopeit, N., Estimating parameters of an extreme value distribution by the method of moments, J. Stat. Plann. Inference, 41, 173–186, 1994.
[3]. Davison, A. C., and R. L. Smith, Models for exceedances over high thresholds, J. R. Stat. Soc., Ser. B, 52, 393–442, 1990.
[4]. Hosking, J. R. M., L-moments: Analysis and estimation of distributions using linear combinations of order statistics, J. R. Stat. Soc., Ser. B, 52, 105–124, 1990.
[5]. Landwehr, J. M., N. C. Matalas, and J. R. Wallis, Probability weighted moments compared with some traditional techniques in estimating Gumbel parameters and quantiles, Water Resour. Res., 15(5), 1055–1064, 1979.


Paper Title :: Experimental investigation of a phase change material-based thermal energy storage in a telecommunication site’s cooling system
Author Name :: Zoltán Andrássy || Zoltán Szánthó
Country :: Hungary
Page Number :: 31-41
The cooling energy usage of data centers and telecommunication sites is enormous and has a growth rate of 11% every year. Finding an energy-efficient solution for cooling needs poses a considerable challenge for engineers. In this article,the performancesof a phase change material-based (PCM) thermal energy storage (TES)installed in a telecommunication site areevaluated with the design methods and control optimization. Three representative days of the year (free-cooling, expanded free-cooling and summer period) and their possible savings,as well as the savings of an entire year period are investigated and showcased. During the free-cooling period 83,1% cooling associated electricity consumption was saved with the added indirect free-cooling system through the TES. For the expanded free-cooling period, the TES was charged using the free-cooling and discharged when free-cooling was not possible anymore, accounting for 78,7% cooling associated electricity saving. During the summer period only the chiller’s efficiency was optimized, resulting in 17,1% saving. During 2019. 57,7% and during 2020. 54,8% cooling associated electricity was saved.
Key Words: Thermal energy storage, phase change materials, cooling energy efficiency
[1] KPMG Energy sectorial Report. 2017;https://home.kpmg.com/be/en/home/insights/2018/02/energy-sector-report-2017.html, [accessed 16 March 2021].
[2] A. Petraglia, A. Spagnuolo, C. Vetromile, A. D'Onofrio, C. Lubritto. Heat flows and energetic behaviour of telecommunication radio base station. Energy. 2015;89:75-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.07.044.
[3] M. Xie, J. Wang, J. Liu. Evaluation metrics of thermal management in data centers based on exergy analysis. Appl. Themr. Eng..2019;147:1083-1095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.10.137.
[4] K. Ebrahimi, G.F. Jones, A.S. Fleischer. Thermo-economic analysis of steady state waste heat recovery in data centers using absorption refrigeration. Appl. Energy. 2015;139:384-397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.10.067.
[5] T. Yang, Y. Zhang, J. Huang, R. Peng,. Estimating the energy saving potential of telecom operators in China. Energy Policy. 2013;61:448-459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.06.025.


Paper Title :: Production and Characterization of Bioactive Components enriched Soft Drinks
Author Name :: Hatice Kubra Ozgul || Sibel Yigitarslan
Country :: Turkey
Page Number :: 42-52
Functional foods, which aim to use the existing opportunities effectively to meet the food need due to the increasing population in the world, are still lacking in producing new products to support human health. In this study, functional food components were brought together to produce a non-alcoholic beverage that can be offered to individuals and has a resistance-increasing and immune system-strengthening effect. In the study, extracts containing flavonoids obtained from different plant sources and extraction method were added to the proteins found in liquid form in whey, and the mixture was enriched with casein obtained from milk. Pomegranate, cinnamon and chamomile plants have been selected considering their high flavonoid content and different colors and odours. In the extraction process, it was optimized with the Box-Behnken experimental design by using the classical extraction method in water solvent. Three different beverage samples with different effects were produced by adding casein and whey produced by precipitating the protein of milk with acetic acid and evaporating the acid to the prepared extracts, depending on the amount of antioxidants to be taken daily. It is recommended to prefer chamomile-based drinks for a positive and calming effect on cancer cells, pomegranate flower to neutralize harmful components accumulated in the body, cinnamon-based drinks for a soothing effect in neurodegenerative diseases, and to consume all beverage samples to observe all these anti-inflammatory effects is expected to lead.
Key Words: Functional food, soft drink, antioxidants, casein, sodium caseinate
[1]. Harper, D.S., Osborn, J.C., Hefferren, J.J., Clayton, R., Modification of food cariogenecity in rats by mineralrich concentrates from milk, J Dent Res, 1987, 66(1), 42-45.
[2]. Arora, N., Garg, T., & Bilandi, A., Review on casein production and casein based nano-formulations, Int. Res. J. Pharm, 2012, 3(1), 41-45.
[3]. Yerlikaya, O., Kınık, Ö. ve Akbulut, N., Peyniraltı suyunun fonksiyonel özellikleri ve peyniraltı suyu kullanılarak üretilen yeni nesil süt ürünleri, Gıda, 2010, 35(4), 289-296.
[4]. Saarela, M., Mogensen, G., Fonden, R., Matto, J., Matilla-Sandholm, T., Probiotic bacteria: mSafety, functional and technological properties, Journal of Biotechnology, 2000, 84, 197- 215.
[5]. Betoret, N., Puente, L., Diaz, M.J., Pagan, M.J., Garcia, M.J., Gras, M.I., Martinez-Monzo, J., ve Fito, P., Development of probiotic-enriched dried fruits by vacuum impregnation, Journal of Food Engineering, 2003, 56, 273-277.


Paper Title :: Humanities and Social Sciences
Author Name :: Cornelia PETRE (STAN)
Country :: Romania
Page Number :: 53-55
Sociology, as a scientific resource and constitutional theoretical paradigm, is, through its micro- and phenomenological-humanist component, increasingly requested, in contemporary social assistance. The sociological scientific foundation of the policies and practices of the new types of social assistance, in accordance with the realities of the beginning of the millennium, being a necessity.
Under the conditions of shaking structural or universalist solutions and paradigms, advancing postmodernist paradigms and social solutions, sociologists must increasingly resort to visions, concepts, theories or methods such as existentialist or personalist-humanist, often marginalized in periods of economic and social well-being. , when redistribution policies and universalist-solidarity mechanisms automatically solve many social problems.
That is precisely those paradigms that highlight the valences and role of the small group, the small community, the context and the person in social determinism, in the explanation of the social vulnerability and problem.
Key Words: Humanistic concepts, Sociology, Existentialist-humanist.
[1]. Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E., and Wall, S., Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1978;
[2]. Allport, G., The Nature of Prejudic, Reading, MA : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co, 1979; Buzducea, D. (2009) Sisteme moderne de asistenţă socială. Tendinţe globale şi practici locale (Modern social welfare systems: Global trends and local practices). Iaşi: Editura Polirom;
[3]. Callahan, A. M., (2011). Book Review of “Humanistic Social Work” by M. Payne, Journal of Religion and Spirituality: Social Thought, Routlege, 30: 181-184;
[4]. Cloke, C., Davies, M. (1995) Participation and Empowerment in Chid Protection. Londra: Pitman.


Paper Title :: Impacts and Awareness of Materials Management Strategies on Project Delivery in Nigerian Construction Industry
Author Name :: OLANREWAJU Sharafadeen Babatunde Owolabia || OYEBIYI Simeon Abioduna and OLATUNYA Deji Alfred
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 56-63
Material management is the system for planning and controlling to ensure that the right quality and quantity of materials and equipment are specified in a timely manner. The research work evaluates the impacts and awareness of materials management strategies on project delivery in Nigerian construction industry. Seventy (70) questionnaires on construction sites will be chosen at random for the purpose of achieving the objectives of this impact and awareness of materials management strategies on project delivery in Nigeria construction industry were distributed for collection of data. Data were obtained from both the primary and secondary sources which include interview, questionnaire, textbooks journal publications and internet facilities. The result revealed that scheduling and planning ranked first with RSI value of 0.711(71.10%), planning and delivery ranked second with RSI value of 0.709 (70.90%), handling ranked third with RSI value of 0.674 (67.40%). These are followed by security systems, stock control, material variance analysis, waste control, inventory, Construction Materials Planning System (CMPS), Construction Materials Management Software (CMMS), ICT based material management techniques, Performance Information Procurement System (PIPS), Just-in-Time (JIT), Material Handling Equipment Selection Advisor (MHESA), Construction Materials Exchange (COME), and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) respectively. Conclusion and recommendations were made from the results obtained from the research.
Key Words: impacts, awareness, materials management, strategies, construction industry.
[1]. Aibinu A.A and Jagboro G.O (2002): “The Effects of Construction Delays on Projects Delivery in Nigeria Construction Industry”. International Journal of Project Management, 20, 593-599.
[2]. Hafez, N (2001): “Residential Projects Obstacles and problems in Kuwait MS Project”, Department of Civil Engineering, Kuwait University.
[3]. Abdul-Rahman, H. and Alidrisyi, M. N. (1994) “A Perspective of Material Management Practices in a Fast-Developing Economy; the case of Malaysia”. Construction Management and Economics, 12, 412-422.
[4]. Olanrewaju, S.B.O, (2015): Appraisal of Material Management Strategies of Construction Firms in Ekiti state, Nigeria. Unpublished M.Tech Thesis, Department of Building Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
[5]. Construction Industry Institute (2021).Benefit of Material Management. Construction Industry Institute. 3925 W Braker Ln, Austin, Texas 78759. https://www.construction-institute.org/


Paper Title :: Mitigation of Dangers in the Practice of Arc and Oxy-Gas Welding in Sokoto, Nigeria
Author Name :: Muhammad Yanda || Billihaminu A. Olawumi
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 64-68
In this research, an attempt is made to explore into the potential dangers that the practitioners of welding activities are posed to in the welding activities. 200 questionnaires were administered across parts of four (4) Local Government Areas that make up Sokoto Metropolis of Nigeria, Sokoto North, Sokoto South, Wamakko and Dange-Shuni Local Government Areas. This was aimed at collecting data from welding practitioners on their adherences to safety precautions in the practice welding activities. 195 out 200 administered questionnaires were retrieved and analysed. The results of the analysis revealed that,the majority of welding practitioners in the metropolis lacks the basic education about the code of practice in welding and neglect most necessary safety precautions which arose due to lack of regulations and enforcement of adherences to codes by any governmental agency. It was then recommended that government should regulate, enforce adherences to codes and support the practitioners within the metropolis.
Key Words: Welding, Danger, Electric Shock, Oxy-Gas, Fume.
[1]. Budhathoki, S. S., Singh, S. B., Sagtani, R. A., Niraula, S. R. and Pokharel, P. K. (2014). Awareness of occupational hazards and use of safety measures among welders: a cross-sectional study from eastern Nepal, BMJ, Open 2014;4:e004646. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013004646.
[2]. Code of Practice (2002). Safety and Health at Work for Manual Electric Arc Welding, Occupational Safety and Health Branch, First Edition, Labour Department, London.
[3]. Mgonja, C. T. (2017). The Effects of Arc Welding Hazards to Welders and People Surrounding the Welding Area, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), Volume 8, Issue 3, pp. 433–441 Article ID: IJMET_08_03_048.
[4]. Tadesse, S., Bezabih, S., Destaw, B. and Assefa, Y. (2016). Awareness of occupational hazards and associated factors among welders in Lideta Sub-City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Vol. 11, Issue 15, DOI 10.1186/s12995-016-0105-x.
[5]. Wanjari, M. B. and Wankhede, P. (2020). Occupational Hazards Associated with Welding Work That Influence Health Status of Welders, International Journal of Current Research and Review, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31782/IJCRR.2020.122303.


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