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Vol. 08, No. 05 [May 2022]

Paper Title :: Combination of energy production and plastic waste management
Author Name :: Zoltán Juvancz || László Tolner
Country :: Hungary
Page Number :: 01-07
One of the biggest tasks of the environmental science is creating more economic and environmentally friendly energy sources. The enormously increasing amounts of waste materials are also a huge challenge for the environmental protection. Significant parts of the waste materials are plastics or man-made polymers. The treat of the plastic wastes can be in three ways: reuse, energy recovery and landfill. The recycling and reuse of the plastics are unsolved problem recently. The present states and difficulties of these techniques are shown in this paper. The incinerations of the polymers seem a good solution, because they have very high energy content per volume. The uneven energy consumption requires peaks in the production of energy seasonally. The energy consumption is higher in winter than in summer in northern part of Europe. Such a seasonal deviation of energy consumption can be compensated with the waste burning in winter during the cold weather. The significant portions of municipal wastes are burnable and hardly biological degradable (e.g., polyurethane, PET, PVC, PE, etc.). Moreover, several types of them cannot be recirculated. The plastic materials can be used for high efficiency energy production in a big extent. This paper is mainly a review type, but we also proposal for the future: the plastic waste materials must be collected and stored during the less energy consuming period and burn them when the energy requirements are high. The selected burnable waste can be collected during the whole year period and stored in compressed forms. The abandoned open cast mines are appropriate for such depots. In this way the consumption of fossil fuel will significantly be reduced, and the waste stream will be decreased. Several alternative ways are also shown for the use of plastic waste in this paper.
Key Words: Energy management, harmonization, plastic materials, waste management, incineration
[1] G. B. Kauffman, Heroes of Polymer chemistry(Chemical and Eng. News, 1998) 38-39.
[2] Béla Iván, Polimerekés a környezet: kihívásokésmegoldások lecture in the Tudomány Ünnepe symposium, Budapest, 2017
[3] N. Li, H. Liu, Z. Cheng, B. Yan, G. Chen, S. Wang, Conversion of plastic waste into fuels: A critical review, J. Hazardous Materials 424, Part B, (2022) 127460, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127460
[4] Plastics – The Facts 2019 https://www.plasticseurope.org/application-/files/9715/7129/9584/ FINAL_web_version_Plastics_the_facts2019_14102019.pdf
[5] L. Lebreton, A. Andrady, A. Future scenarios of global plastic waste generation and disposal. Palgrave Commun 5, 6 ,2019. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-018-0212-7


Paper Title :: Calculation of Porosity in Clay Formations with examples and a second form of expression
Author Name :: M. Sc. Zenteno Jiménez José Roberto
Country :: Mexico
Page Number :: 08-23
Another proposed expression is presented for the calculation of porosity for reservoirs preferably with a high volume of clay, using sonic tools, mentioning the equations developed over the years and their use in practice, 3 cases will be tested where it will be put into In practice, the equations obtained to calculate the porosity are mentioned as part of the methodology by Karter H. Makar and Mostafa H Kamel (2011), the statistical estimator of quadratic error is considered to check the results.
Key Words: Porosity, Porosity Equation, Wyllie Equation, Raymer Hunt Equation, Raiga Equation, Zenteno Equation, Clay Volume
[1]. An approach for minimizing errors in computing effective porosity in reservoirof shaly nature in view of Wyllie–Raymer–Raiga relationshipKarter H. Makar ⁎, Mostafa H. KamelGeophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
[2]. Raiga-Clemenceau, J., Martine, J.P., Nicoletis, S., 1988. The conceptof acoustic formation factor for more accurate porositydetermination from sonic transit time data. Log Anal.,
[3]. Raymer, L.L., Hunt, E.R., Gardner, J.S., 1980. An improved Sonic transit time-to-porosity transform. SPWLA Trans., 21st Ann.Log. Symp., Paper P. The Society of Professional Well LogAnalyst (SPWLA), Tulsa, OK.
[4]. Bassiouni, Z., 1994. Theory, Measurements, and Interpretation ofWell Logs. The Society of Petroleum Engineering, USA, p. 372.ISBN 1-55563-956-1.
[5]. Porosity estimation using a combination of Wyllie–Clemenceau equations in clean sand formation from acoustic logs Mostafa H. Kamel*, Walid M. Mabrouk, Abdelrahim I. Bayoumi Geophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.













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