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Vol. 09, No. 04 [April 2023]

Paper Title :: Kill chain model based Advanced Persistent Threat in Power System
Author Name :: Xiao Ziyang || Wang Xingjian || Qiu Rixuan || Li Dingding || Li Shuai
Country :: China
Page Number :: 01-05
Based on the ATT & CK knowledge base, a kill chain model for APT attacks on power systems is established. Traditional methods have difficulty in dividing APT attack techniques into kill chain attack stages, which makes it difficult for security personnel to make defense decisions quickly. To address this issue, a method based on the kill chain model is proposed for dividing APT attack techniques into their respective stages. The method uses the Bert model for semantic analysis of technical texts to automatically classify attack techniques into their respective stages. Experimental results show that this method achieves better performance than existing models.
Key Words: power system; advanced persistent threat; ATT & CK; attack modeling; Bert; natural language processing; text classificatio
[1]. HAN Xueyuan,et al: Runtime Provenance-Based Detector for Advanced Persistent Threats [EB/OL]. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2001.01525,2020-01-06/2022-08-20.
[2]. KARANTZAS G, PATSAKIS C. An Empirical Assessment of Endpoint Detection and Response Systems against Advanced Persistent Threats Widely Used Attack Vectors [J]. Cybersecur. Priv. 2021, 1: 387–421.
[3]. LIU J, et al. A New Realistic Benchmark for Advanced Persistent Threats in Network Traffic [J]. IEEE Networking Letters, 2022: 1-1.
[4]. HOFER-SCHMITZ K, KLEB U, STO-JANOVIC B. The Influences of Feature Sets on the Detection of Advanced Persistent Threats [J]. Electronics, 2021, 10:704.
[5]. SIDAHMED B, GHITA B, JAMES C, PETKO V. A Rule Mining-Based Advanced Persistent Threats Detection System [EB/OL]. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2105.10053,2021-05-20/2022/07/28.


Paper Title :: Defense method for malicious data injection attacks in power Internet of Things
Author Name :: Cao Na || Fu Yufei || Qiu Rixuan || Dang Fangfang || Yan Lijing
Country :: China
Page Number :: 06-10
The Power Internet of Things (PIoT) is vulnerable to malicious data attacks that can stealthily manipulate the data of power systems. Studying how to defend against such attacks is crucial for ensuring the security and reliability of power system operations. In this paper, we propose a defense method. Our method leverages both malicious and historical normal data to jointly train the generator and discriminator networks, fine-tune the network parameters, and restore the original data. We conduct simulation experiments on the IEEE system to demonstrate the effectiveness and performance of our model.
Key Words: Power Internet of Things; malicious data attack; defense model.
[1]. Liu Y, Ning P, Reiter M K. False Data Injection Attacks against State Estimation in Electric Power Grids[J]. Acm Transactions on Information and System Security, 2011, 14(1).
[2]. Hao J, Kang E, Sun J, et al. An Adaptive Markov Strategy for Defending Smart Grid False Data Injection from Malicious Attackers [J]. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2018, 9(4): 2398-2408.
[3]. Deng R L, Xiao G X, Lu R X. Defending Against False Data Injection Attacks on Power System State Estimation[J]. Ieee Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 2017, 13(1): 198-207.
[4]. Liang G Q, Weller S R, Luo F J, et al. Distributed Blockchain-Based Data Protection Framework for Modern Power Systems against Cyber Attacks [J]. Ieee Transactions on Smart Grid, 2019, 10(3):3162-3173.
[5]. Tian J, Tan R, Guan X H, et al. Enhanced Hidden Moving Target Defense in Smart Grids [J]. Ieee Transactions on Smart Grid, 2019, 10(2):2208-2223.


Paper Title :: APT Attack Detection Method Based on Transformer
Author Name :: Xiao Ziyang || Huang Chunhui || Qiu Rixuan || Zhang Junfeng || Lin Nan
Country :: China
Page Number :: 11-16
APT attack is the most popular type of network attack nowadays, and its complexity, diversity, and strong concealment make it difficult to detect. Traditional APT detection methods only stay in a simple perspective of network attacks, which makes it difficult to capture the above characteristics, resulting in lower detection efficiency. Therefore, this article proposes to use the transformer model to detect APT attacks. This model uses the self attention mechanism to achieve the capture of relational dependencies against long sequence data, thereby achieving the detection of APT attacks, and achieving very good results. By setting appropriate hyper parameters and loss functions, the model was trained for multiple rounds, and the expected results were achieved.
Key Words: network security, Advanced Persistent Threats, long sequence, transformer, deep learning
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[2]. A. M. Lajevardi and M.Amini , A semantic-based correlation approach for detecting hybrid and low-level APTs[J], Futur . Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 96, pp.64–88, 2019.
[3]. M. Marchetti, F. Pierazzi , M. Colajanni , and A. Guido, Analysis of high volumes of network traffic for Advanced Persistent Threat detection[J], Comput . Networks, vol. 109, pp. 127–141, Nov. 2016.
[4]. T. Bodström and T. Hämäläinen, A Novel Method for Detecting APT Attacks by Using OODA Loop and Black Swan Theory [J], Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 11280, Springer,2018, pp. 498–509.
[5]. Liu Haibo, Wu Tianbo, Shen Jing, Shi Changting. APT attack detection based on GAN-LSTM [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(01):281-286.


Paper Title :: An Excel Application for Analysis and Design of RC Low-Rise Structural Elements using British Standards and European Codes
Author Name :: Kisasati Wekesa Jacob || Owino Emily Achieng || Mburu Rose Nunga || Omar Salim Makumba || Ann Muganda || Clement K. Kiptum
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 17-25
There is an increasing demand for tools that can simplify the design process and improve the accuracy and efficiency of the design calculations in structural engineering. This paper presents an Excel application for the design and analysis of reinforced concrete low-rise structures using British standards and European codes. The application aims to assist structural engineers in the design process as it provides a set of pre-programmed calculations for the analysis of slabs, beams, columns, footings and stairs. The application incorporates the relevant design equations and guidelines from both standards and allows the user to input the required parameters and generate concise design outputs such as load capacity, stress analysis results and design recommendations. In developing the application, a combination of VBA programming and yield line method was used. The application has been tested using different design scenarios and the output compared to manual calculations. The application offers significant time savings, increased accuracy, and improved efficiency over manual methods.
Key Words: Beam, British standards, Columns, European codes, Excel application, Footing, Slabs, Stairs, structural engineering, low-rise structures, VBA programming, yield line method, design, analysis.
[1]. D. Proske, " The Collapse Frequency of Structures,," Buildings and structures., pp. 89-109., 2022.
[2]. M. &. W. J. Alhassan, ". Incorporating very Powerful Structural Analysis and Design Software Packages into Civil Engineering Courses.," in Annual Conference & Exposition, 2010.
[3]. Samson Olalekan ODEYEMI, "Evaluation of Selected Software Packages for Structural," ABUAD Journal of Engineering Research and Development, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 133-141, 2020.
[4]. S. &. C. S. P. Tattimani, " Developing an individual Excel sheet for design and analysis of beam and slab. .," International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology, 10(9), 703-730, 2022.
[5]. C. E. Reynolds, Examples of the design of reinforced concrete buildings to BS8110 (4th ed.), . CRC Press., (2017).


Paper Title :: Design and simulation of Artificial arm
Author Name :: Pavan Manjunatha || Dr. Jeremy (Zheng) Li
Country :: USA
Page Number :: 26-33
The shoulder joint is a complicated structure that can exist in the human body and performs momentary functions like lifting, holding, and throwing, which is necessary for better performance. The shoulder contains ball and socket structure for the rotatory motion and for the linear motion.
If this essential structure got damaged from some injury or from the rotator cuff tears, we need the same functional shoulder that can restore the same function. For that we designed a better ball and socket structure with more compatibility. Here, we created a 3-dimensional structure using solid works of the artificial shoulder which consists of the same ball and socket structure in the reversed direction. In this structure we have used Titanium -Ti-6Al-4V (titanium-aluminum-vanadium) as a material as its non-corrosive in nature and high tensile strength and durability.
We also calculated the material strength. And the safety which comes around the value 3. These results can reduce the pain and can lift the weight up to 300N. This operation depends on the body condition and response. This also has some disadvantages like infection, nerve damage and implant failure. We need qualified professional people to make this assembly for lesser risks.
[1]. George S. Athwal, MD and Meredith Fabing, DO. "Reverse Total Shoulder Replacement." American orthopaedic surgeon (August 2022).
[2]. Price, Dr. Mark. "Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty (rTSA)." Mass General Sports Medicine Center (1998): 7
[3]. Best MJ, Aziz KT, Wilckens JH, McFarland EG, Srikumaran U. Increasing incidence of primary reverse and anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty in the United States. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2021 May;30(5):1159-1166. [PubMed]
[4]. Reeves B, Jobbins B, Flowers F, Dowson D, Wright V. Some problems in the development of a total shoulder endo-prosthesis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1972 Sep;31(5):425-6. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
[5]. Baulot E, Sirveaux F, Boileau P. Grammont's idea: The story of Paul Grammont's functional surgery concept and the development of the reverse principle. Clin OrthopRelat Res. 2011 Sep;469(9):2425-31. [PMC free article] [PubMed]


Paper Title :: Design and Analysis of an Elliptical Bicycle for Outdoor Exercise
Author Name :: Chetan V. Papade || Tanveer T. Shaikh || Basit A.M. Bagalkote || Umar K. Begumpure
Country :: India
Page Number :: 34-43
Most people use fitness apparatus for workouts and to stay fit, but as the fitness equipment are placed in closed/ restricted spaces, unfortunately, the user stops working out in an artificial environment and misses the chance to explore nature. Another problem allied with fitness equipment‟s, the person using the fitness equipment has to perform a single exercise and is committed to that workout until it gets completed. So, the aim of our project is to make an elliptical bicycle or a fitness instrument in a minimum cost. The Elliptical Movement is an elliptical bicycle. By modifying the elliptical trainer motion and uniting it with the functionality of a bicycle, the Elliptical movement bicycle delivers a high-performance workout experience and eliminates the impact that closely mimics outdoor running. It delivers the most comfortable, fun, and efficient way to get out and stay active. As we calculated that the calories burned in an elliptical bicycle in 10 min is 43kcal and the calories burned in a normal bicycle in 10 min is 31kcal. Thus, conclude that Elliptical Movement is designed and made up with 60% cost optimization hence filling our aim of the project which was to design and fabricate the model while optimizing the cost which is successfully achieved with an added advantage of introducing this concept in the Indian market. Thus, have established a fitness tool that allows the rider to work out and simultaneously explore nature. Thus, Elliptical Movement emulates the natural running movement, so the rider stands upright, in a very comfortable position and, propels the Elliptical Movement using a very comfortable motion. The upright riding posture drastically improves the rider‟s ability to see over traffic and obstacles as compared to road cycling.
Key Words: Cardiovascular workout, Elliptical bicycle, Elliptical movement, Outdoor exercise
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