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Vol. 1, No. 6 [November 2015]:

Author Name :: E. O. Aiyewalehinmi || S. P. Akande
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 01-07
The Compressive Strength of Commercially Produced Sandcrete blocks available in the material market in Nigeria fall below minimum requirements of Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS 87:2000) 2.5N/mm2. The purpose of this study was to develop a new sandcrete blocks made from Cassava waste water to replace Normal sandcrete blocks made from distilled water using the same materials and methods. 48 sandcrete block samples size 450mm X 150mm X 225mm were cast and controlled. The tests performed include: Sieve Analysis, Water absorption, Specific gravity and Compressive Strength. The Findings revealed that the Sandcrete blocks made from cassava waste water attained compressive strength at day 28 (4.06)N/mm2 while the Normal distilled water sandcrete blocks attained the compressive strength at day 28 (1.03)N/mm2. This indicates that cassava sandcrete blocks satisfy while the distilled failed to satisfy NIS 87: 2000 and BS 3921 requirement. It suggests that Cassava Sandcrete block is a durable building and construction material.
Keyword: Sieve Analysis, Water Absorption, Specific Gravity, Cassava, Compressive Strength
[1]. American Society for Testing and Materials (1978). Specifications for pozzolanas. ASTM International, USA, ASTM C618.
[2]. American Society for Testing and Materials (2004). Standard test method for steady-state heat flux measurements and thermal transmission properties by means of the guarded-hot-plate apparatus. ASTM International, USA. ASTM C177.
[3]. Baiden, B.K. And Tuuli, M.M. (2004) Impact of Quality Control Practices in Sandcrete Blocks Production. Journal Architectural Engineering, 10(2):53 – 60.
[4]. British Standards Institution (1971) Ordinary and rapid-hardening Portland cement. London. BS, 12: 2.
[5]. British Standards Institution (1990). Methods of testing for soils for Civil Engineering purposes. London. pp. 1377.

Paper Title :: Summarization of Malayalam Document Using Relevance of Sentences
Author Name :: Ajmal E.B || Rosna P Haroon
Country :: India
Page Number :: 08-13
Text summarization is an emerging technique for finding out the summary of the text document. Text summarization is nothing but summarizing the content of given text document. Text summarization has got so uses such as Due to the massive amount of information getting increased on internet; it is difficult for the user to go through all the information available on web. Summarization techniques need to be used to reduce the users time in reading the whole information available on web. In this paper propose a Malayalam text summarization system which is based on MMR technique with successive threshold. Here the sentences are selected based on the concept of maximal marginal relevance. The key idea is to use a unit step function at each step to decide the maximum marginal relevance and the number of sentences present in the summary would be equal to the number of paragraphs or the average number of sentences present in the text document, which can be achieved by using successive threshold approach. We apply MMR approach on Malayalam text summarization task and achieve comparable results to the state of the art.
Keywords- Maximum Marginal Relevance, Successive Threshold, Unit step function.
[1]. Rajina Kabeer, SumamMary Idicula, Text Summarization for Malayalam Document- an Experience, International Conference on Data Science and Engineering(ICDSE), 2014.
[2]. Jurij Leskovec, Natasa Milic-Frayling,Marko Grobelnik, Extracting Summary Sentences Based on the Document Semantic Graph, Microsoft Research,2007.
[3]. Elena Lloret, Text Summarization : An Overview,University of Ali-cante,2007.
[4]. Vishal Gupta, Gurpreet Singh Lehal, A Survey of Text Summarization Extractive Techniques, Journal of Emerging Technologies in Web Intelligence, 2010.
[5]. Dipanjan Das, Andre F.T. Martins, A Survey on Automatic Text Summarization, Language Technologies Institute, Carnegie Mellon Univer-sity,2007.

Paper Title :: Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water Samples of Cauvery River and Kallanai Kalvaai around Kallanai Dam in Tamil Nadu
Author Name :: M. Prem Nawaz || S. Raja Mohamed || A. Ayeshamariam
Country :: India
Page Number :: 14-16
Heavy metals usually present in trace amounts in natural water. Some metals are essential to human and animals but they are toxic when their limit exceeds. Their concentration increase in water due to addition of industrial wastes, sewages and domestic wastes, Iron concentrations in the sewages are very low than the permissible limit which was analysed here. Water quality of Cauvery River and Kallanai Kalvaai analysis helped to get the information's of chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water. Water quality of these river and dam are used to measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose.
KEYWORDS– Cauvery river, Heavy metals, Kallanai Kalvaai
[1]. Abdul Jameel, A., Evaluation of drinking water quality in Tiruchirappalli, TamilNadu, Indian J.Env.Hlth., 44(2), 2002, 108-112
[2]. Abdul Jameel, A., A study on the distribution of organic matter and Toxic metals in the sediments of river Cauvery at Tiruchirappalli, Indian J. Environ.Prot., 21(4), 2001, 302-304.
[3]. Adak, D.M. and Purohit, K.m., Status of surface and ground water quality of Mandiakudar Part I: Physico chemical parameters. Poll.Res., 20(1), 2001, 103-110.
[4]. , T.R., Singh, K.N. and Gupta, A.K., Impact of sewage containing domestic wastes and heavy metals on the chemistry of Varuna river water. Poll.Res., 19(3), 2000., 491-494.
[5]. Boominathan, R. And Mazhar Nazeeb Khan, S.M., 1995. Effect of Distillery Effluents on the Dissolved Organic Matter, Hydrogen Sulphide and Salinity of Channel Water. Env. Eco., 13(1), 1995, 52-55.

Author Name :: Prasanna Kumara T.P || N.K. Sarath Chandra Prakash || Lokesh P || Dr. Krishna Manral
Country :: India
Page Number :: 17-30
This research wasconducted to determine the effect of viscoelastic properties and Rheological characterization of carbomers. Carbomers are the generic name for a class of high molecular weight cross linked polymer of acrylic acid. Carbomers play an important role in many commercial products such as gels, creams and lotions, providing viscosity, stabilization and suspension properties. Understanding how the preparation of the carbomers can affect the final. One such factor that can affect the behavior of the carbomers is the method of dispersing the carbomers into an aqueous medium, the carbomers considered in this research were from USP grade of materials, from this investigation conducted, it was found a number of carbomers were affected by shear as a result of the method of dispersion used. Use of the shear sensitive carbomers in commercial production could require the use of low shear mixing which would result in a longer dispersion time and increased production cost.
Keywords:DV-II +Pro Viscometer, Rheometer, Shear rate, Shear stress, Viscoelasticity, Carbomers, Emulsion, Amplitude sweep, Flow curve, Oscillation.
[1]. Baroli B, Lpَez-Quintela MA, Delgado-Charro MBA, Fadda AM ad Blanco-Méndez J (2000). Microemulsionsfor topical delivery of 8-methoxsalen. J.Control. Release., 69: 209-218.
[2]. Puglia C, Liotta M, Drechsler M, Rizza L and Bonina F (2006). Evaluation of in vitro percutaneous absorption of glycyrrhetininc acid from nanoemulsions obtained by the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method. 5thWorld Meeting on Pharmaceutics, Biopharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Switzerland.
[3]. Yilmaz E and Borchert HH (2006). Effect of lipidcontaining, positively charged nanoemulsions on skin hydration, elasticity and erythema: An in vivo study. Int. J. Pharm., 307: 232-238.
[4]. Baboota S, Shakeel F, Ahuja A, Ali J and Shafiq S (2007). Design, development and evaluation of novelnanoemulsion formulations for transdermal potential of celecoxib. Acta. Pharm., 57: 315-332.
[5]. Zhu W, Guo C, Yu A, Gao Y, Cao F and Zhai G (2009). Microemulsion-based hydrogel formulation ofpenciclovir for topical delivery. Int. J. Pharm., 378:152-158.

Paper Title :: A theoretical approach to overcoming the challenges valuing Agricultural Property (Asset) for various purposes in Awka Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria
Author Name :: Ifediora, Christian Osita
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 31-35
The study focused on a theoretical approach toovercoming the challenges encountered while valuing agricultural property (asset) for various purposes. The farm produce (products) were thoroughly considered with reference to sales and emphasis on profit drawn.It also considered the methods to be adopted valuing various assets of the farm including plant and machinery. While valuing such complex property, the method of valuation adopted for various assets including the farm produce (products) were considered with a view of overcoming the challenges on ways to carrying future valuations on such agricultural property.This study no doubt considered the various purposes for which the agricultural property is being valued and made some specific findings with respect to what constituted challenges while carrying out valuation for agricultural properties and ultimately proffered solutions to identified challenges.
KEYWORDS: Challenges, Agricultural Property, Asset, Valuation.
[1] Ezimuo, P.N., Onyejika, C.J. and Emoh, F.I. (2014). Sources of Real Estate Finance and their impact on property development in Nigeria. A case study of Mortgage institutions in Lagos Metropolis. British Journal of Environmental Research, 2 (2), 35-58.
[2] Kalu, I.U. (2001). Property Valuation and Appraisal. Imo: Adyudo Press.
[3] Ogunba, O.A. (2013). Principles and Practice of Property Valuation in Nigeria. Ibadan: Atlantis books.
[4] Olusegun, K. (2009). Practical approach to Plant and Machinery Valuation. Lagos: Climax Communications Limited.
[5] Onyejika, C.J. and Emoh, F.I. (2014). Adopting the best practices for the Valuation of Agricultural properties in Nigeria. Estate Surveyors and Valuers. Vol. 39, No 1. Pp 57-65.

Author Name :: NURA GAMBO || Baba- Kutigi A. N || Hamza Abubakar || MusaMOMOH
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 36-42
Twenty (20) samples of concrete blocks from different local government in Katsina state were measured using gamma spectroscopy with NaI (TL) detector. Three naturally occurring radionuclides and their activity concentrations were determined, that is 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The activity concentrations for 40K ranged from 46.11 ± 1 to 826.59 ± 4.82 Bq/kg, the activity concentration of Radium (226Ra) ranged from10.19 ± 2.43 Bq/kg to 75.09 ± 4.98 Bq/kg and the activity concentration of Thorium (232Th) ranged from2.77±9.59Bq/kg to 105.13 ± 9.25Bq/kg. The highest value 826.59 ± 4.82Bq/kg was recorded from 40K; the highest value of 226Ra was obtained from the measurement 75.09 ± 4.98 Bq/kg and also the highest value obtained for (232Th) 105.13 ± 9.25Bq/kg respectively. The calculated radium equivalent of (375.10 Bq/kg) shows that it has higher value from sample BS 04 (Jibiya L.G.A) which is Grater than the recommended limit set in the OECD report (370 Bq/kg). And also when compare with (UNSCAER, 2000), the terrestrial radiation it's evident that the data obtained from measured samples gives higher value. The results obtained from other Local Governments were found to be lower than the recommended limit 370 Bq/kg for public exposure and control recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The paper also offered Recommendations for public exposure to Radium 226 (226 Ra).
Keywords: Radiation, Concrete block, Radiation, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K Concentrations Radium equivalent
[1]. Abel-Ghany H.A. (2009) Environmental Radioactivity Measurement of Some Egyptian Sand Samples. Rom .Jour. Phys. Vol.54 Nos.1-2 P.213-223.Bucharest
[2]. EL- Shershaby, (2001) Measurement of radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in different kinds of marbles and granites. Appl. Radiate. Isot., 55:853-860.
[3]. A.S. Abdel-Haleem, 2001 Measurement of radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in different kinds of marbles and granites. Appl.Radiat. Isot., 55:853-860.
[4]. Amrani, D.(2000). Natural Radioactivity in Algerian building materials Appl. Radiat. Isotope 54: 687-689
[5]. Arafa, W. (2004) Assessment of Natural Radioactive Material in Building Materials used along coast of central Region in Ghana. Research Journal of Environment and Sciences 3(3): 261-268.

Paper Title :: The use of computer-assisted Experimentation (CAEx) in Moroccan schools
Author Name :: Bouchra GOURJAa || Malika TRIDANE
Country :: Maroc
Page Number :: 43-47
The computer-assisted testing (CAEx) is a method of construction and operation of measures using the computer. It has an important use of CTI in experimental sciences field. The CAEx equipment includes a computer interface and associated with different sensors. It allows real-time measurement of various physical parameters changes, biological. Our study is a collection of information on the types of sensors used in high schools, the appreciation of the type of teacher training teachers in the use of CAEx, measuring the level of use of this tool in experiences in class and possibly the benefits and advantages provided by this tool. In this work, we made some experiments of CAEx tool. We did a survey on the use of CAEx which was to write a questionnaire that focused on equipping schools in CAEx, training of teachers CAEx, the frequency of use of this tool and its contribution to class. We then distributed the questionnaire to teachers of physics in several Moroccan schools; This was a sample of 50. It is clear from this survey that CAEx can: - Gain time - Present values and more accurate results - Make less effort to achieve his goals At first, we presented computer-aided experiments which we have reproduced in the laboratory. In a second step, we checked the level of use of CAEx by teachers, and eventually enjoyed the benefits that bring them of CAEx.
Keywords: CAEx , physical experiments , physical-chemistry, school teachers-CAEx.
[1]. Thoussain, R. M.J., 2002, Conceptual change and teacher training in conceptual change and learning science, Montreal, logical editions
[2]. Annick Caron, 2007, the Research Assistance Program on Teaching and Learning (PAREA), Cégep Marie-Victorin
[3]. Abboud Mehanna Mary, 2013, Article learn science and technology with the CAEx, Faculty of Science - Marie Abboud Mehanna, review of best practice sharing Meeting, February 8, 2013
[4]. Alice Marcotte, 2004, computer-aided experiment's Contributions CAEx in pedagogy, didactics Memory Included PhD University of Montreal (Faculty of Graduate Studies March 2004
[5]. Nonnon P., 2002, University of Montreal 'considerations on the R & D technology in education and CAEx "Paper presented at the Symposium on information technologies (IT) in education, Paris

Paper Title :: Motion of MHD Micropolar Fluid Toward a Stagnation Point Under the Influence of Induced Magnetic Field
Author Name :: Anyaegbunam F.N.C.
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 48-55
A steady two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection stagnation point motion of an incompressible, viscous and electrically conducting micropolar fluid toward a stretching and or shrinking vertical surface with surface heat flux is investigated. The effects of induced magnetic field and the heat flux radiation are considered. The transformed differential equations are solved numerically by a finite-differencemethod. The results for skin friction, heat transfer and induced magnetic field coefficients are obtained. The velocity, micro-rotation and temperature distribution for various parameters are shown. The results are in good agreement with earlier studies. The present results are compared with existing results in the literature and shown to be in good conformity as shown in the resulting table and curves.
Keywords: Micropolar fluid motion, Stagnation point, Stretching and Shrinking sheet,Induced magnetic field.
[[1]. Adhikari A. and Sanyal D.C.,(2013) “Heat transfer on MHD viscous flow over a stretching sheet with prescribed heat flux”, Bull. Int. Math. Virtual Instt.,3, (2013), 35-47.
[2]. Ahmadi G.,(1996) “Self-similar solution of incompressible micropolar boundary layer flow over a semi-infinite flat plate”, Int. Jr. Engg. Sci., Vol. 14, (1976), pp 639-646.
[3]. Ali F.M., Nazar R., Arifin N.M. and Pop I.,(2011) “MHD Mixed Convecion Boundary Layer Flow Towards a Stagnation Point on a Vertical Surface with Induced Magnetic Field”, Jr. of Heat Transfer, Vol. 133, (2011), pp 022502 1-6
[5]. Ariman T., Turk M.A. and Sylvester N.D.,(1973) “Microcontinuum fluid mechanics- review”, Int. Jr. Engg.Sci., Vol. 11, (1973), pp 905-930.

Paper Title :: Evaluation of Response of OMF, CBF and EBF to Lateral Loads Using Nonlinear Pushover Analysis
Author Name :: Ka Patel Juhilkumar || Prof. D. G. Panchal
Country :: India
Page Number :: 56-60
Nonlinear Pushover Analysis carried out for 15-Storey Steel Space frame having 4 bays of 4.5m each in X direction and 3 bays of 4.5 m each in Y direction located in Ahmedabad has been analyzed with ordinary moment frame, concentrically braced frame and eccentrically braced frame. All buildings are designed as per relevant BIS codes. XTRACT has been used for the developing Moment-Curvature (M-φ) relationship for beams, and also used for the developing Moment-Curvature (M-φ) & Axial load- biaxial moment (P-M-M) relationship for columns. These parameters are used for the nonlinear hinge properties. Nonlinear Pushover Analysis is carried on all these buildings and the results are compared for various framing systems.
[1]. IS 800: 2007, “General Construction in Steel - Code Of Practice” (2007), BIS, New Delhi.
[2]. IS 1893:2002, “Criteria for Earthquake Resistance Design of Structures” (2002), BIS, New Delhi.
[3]. IS 875: 1987 (Part-3) Code Of Practice For Design Loads (Other Than Earthquake) For Buildings And Structures.
[4]. IS 2062: 2006 Hot Rolled Low, Medium and High Tensile Structural Steel (Sixth Revision)
[5]. ATC 40, “Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Structures” (1996), California seismic safety commission 1996.

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