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Vol. 02, No. 06 [June 2016]


Paper Title :: Indian Sign Language Alpha-Numeric Character Classification using Neural Network
Author Name :: Rajesh B. Mapari || Dr. G.U.Kharat
Country :: India
Page Number :: 01-08
Many approaches for Sign Language recognition have been tried by researchers including Web camera to latest device like Kinect. The Indian Sign language (ISL) consists of signs performed using one hand and two hands as well. In this paper, an Indian Sign Language alpha-numeric character classification approach is presented using RGB camera. DCT of gray scale image and regional properties of black & white images are used to form feature vector of 74 values. Dataset consists of 33 signs (one handed and two handed) performed by 60 signers (students of age 20-22 years) who have given training about how to perform signs which results in total dataset of 1980 signs. Out of this, 90% dataset is used for training and 10% dataset is used for testing/Cross validation. we have trained and tested different Neural Network classifiers like MLP, GFFNN, SVM. We could get maximum classification accuracy as 86.27 % on Cross Validation dataset using MLP Neural Network.
KEYWORDS: ISL, MLP, GFFNN, SVM.
[1] Dixit, Karishma, and Anand Singh Jalal, "Automatic Indian sign language recognition system." IEEE 3rd International Conference on Advance Computing (IACC), pp. 883-887, 2013.
[2] Adithya V, Vinod P. R., Usha Gopalakrishnan, " Artificial Neural Network Based Method for Indian Sign Language Recognition ",Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Information and Communication Technologies, pp. 1080-1085, 2013.
[3] Rekha, J., J. Bhattacharya, and S. Majumder, "Shape, texture and local movement hand gesture features for indian sign language recognition." IEEE 3rd International Conference on Trendz in Information Sciences and Computing (TISC), pp. 30-35, 2011
[4] Saxena, Ankur, Deepak Kumar Jain, and Achintya Singhal. "Sign Language Recognition Using Principal Component Analysis." Fourth IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies (CSNT), pp. 810-813, 2014.
[5] Bhuyan, M. K., Debashis Ghosh, and P. K. Bora. "A framework for hand gesture recognition with applications to sign language." Annual IEEE In India Conference, pp. 1-6, 2006.

Paper Title :: A Review on Packed Bed Solar air Heating System
Author Name :: Saket Kumar || R.K.Prasad || K.D.P.Singh
Country :: India
Page Number :: 09-16
Packed beds are generally used for storage of thermal energy from solar air heaters. Packed bed is a volume of porous media obtained by packing particles of selected materials into a container. A number of studies carried out on packed bed solar air heater for their performance analysis were reported in the literature. This paper present an extensive review on the research carried out on packed beds. A considerable scope for research and development in forced convection solar air heater with packed bed sensible heat storage with double flow or double pass has been determined.
Keywords: Solar air heater, Heat transfer coefficient, Packed bed, Heat storage, Porous medium.
[1]. Ebrahim Momin Abdul-Malik, Saini J.S, Solanki S.C. "Heat transfer and friction in solar air heater duct with V-shaped rib roughness on absorber plate" International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 45 ,pp.3383–3396, 2002.
[2]. Naphon Paisarn "On the performance and entropy generation of the double-pass solar air heater with longitudinal fins" Renewable Energy 30, pp. 1345–1357, 2005.
[3]. Jaurker A.R , Saini J.S., Gandhi B.K. "Heat transfer and friction characteristics of rectangular solar air heater duct using rib-grooved artificial roughness" Solar Energy 80,pp. 895–907, 2006.
[4]. Ramadan M.R.I, El-Sebaii A.A., Aboul-Enein S., El-Bialy E "Thermal performance of a packed bed double-pass solar air heater" Energy 32 ,pp.1524–1535. 2006.
[5]. Varun , Saini R.P. , Singal S.K. " A review on roughness geometry used in solar air heaters" Solar Energy 81 ,pp.1340–1350, 2007.

Paper Title :: Modeling And Control Of Hybrid Wind-Solar Energy System
Author Name :: Mr. Mohammad shahid || Miss Ayesha Praveen
Country :: India
Page Number :: 17-24
In the recent years the demand of energy has been increased rapidly and all the explorer are searching for the better and reliable form of energy. That gave us the chance to seek new energy sources that can be harnessed easily and had better impact. This search has dragged all attention towards the renewable energy sources that are in abundant and easily available and most important economical. The most important application field of this search is renewable energy resources. Wind and solar energy have being popular ones owing to abundant, ease of availability and convertibility to the electric energy. This work covers realization of a hybrid renewable energy system. This project deals with the focus of implementing a hybrid design that can over-come our energy demand and provide a reliable source for future work. Batteries in the system are charged by either wind power via a small alternator or solar power via an MPPT Module.
[1]. M.K. Deshmukh, S.S Deshmukh, ―Modeling of hybrid renewable energy systems,‖ Renewable & Sustainable energy reviews, pp. 235-249, 12 (2008).
[2]. M.A. Elhadiadly, ―Performance evaluation of hybrid (wind/solar/diesel) power systems,‖ Renewable energy, pp.401-413, 26 (2002).
[3]. Juan Manuel, Carrasco, Jan T. Bialasiewicz, Ramon C.Portillo Guisado, Jose Ignaciao leon, ―Power electronic systems for the grid integration of renewable energy resources: A survey,‖ IEEE transactions on Industrial electronics, vol. 53, No. 4,Aug 2006.
[4]. Marcelo Gradella Villalva, Jonas Rafael Gazoli, and Ernesto Ruppert Filho, ―Comprehensive Approach to Modeling and simulation of PV arrays,‖ IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 1198-1207, May 2009.
[5]. Mohamed A. Eltawil, Zhengming Zhao, ―Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: Technical and potential problems—A review,‖ Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, pp. 112–129, 14 (2010).

Paper Title :: EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF LITRACON BY USING PLASTIC OPTICAL FIBER
Author Name :: Gurpreet Singh || Dhande Uttam || Adurkar Ajit || Prof. Mrs G.A. Sayyed
Country :: India
Page Number :: 25-29
Light transmitting concrete is cement based building material with light transmitting property due to embedded light optical elements usually optical fiber. Light is conducted through the optical fiber one end to other. Light transmitting concrete is also knows as translucent concrete because of its transparent property. It is used in fine architecture as a decorative material and for internal walls. The main purpose is to use natural sunlight as a light source to reduce the power consumption of illumination and to use optical fiber to sense the stress of structure and also use this concrete as architectural purpose for good aesthetic view of the building. The present investigation aims to producing the light translucent concrete by using optical fiber with different percentage and comparing it with normal concrete. Different tests will be performed on the concrete specimen i.e. compressive strength test and light transmission test.
Keywords: Light transmitting concrete, Litracon, Optical Fiber, Cement and Aggregate.
[1]. Satish Kumar V & Suresh T Study of Behavior of Light Transmitting Concrete Using Optical Fiber, ISSN (P): 2349-3968, ISSN (O): 2349-397 Volume 2 Issue 4, (April -2015), 4-6.
[2]. Mr.A.B. Sawant, Mr.R.V.Jugdar, Ms.V.P.Chougule, Experimental work on light Transmitting concrete by using optical fiber, Volume No.02, Issue No. 12, (December 2014), 642-644.
[3]. Dr. R.B.kadiranaikar, prof A.A. Momin, Mr. A. A. Inamdar, Study on light Transmittance of concrete using optical fibers and glass rods, (ICAET-2014), 67-70.
[4]. Bhavin K. Kashiyani, Varsha Raina, Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Dr. Bhavnaben K. Shah A Study on Transparent Concrete: A Novel Architectural Material To Explore Construction Sector, (IJEIT) Volume 2, Issue 8, (February 2013), 84-86.
[5]. M.N.V.Padma Bhushan, D.Johnson, Md. Afzal Basheer Pasha and Ms. K. Prasanthi, Optical Fibers in the Modeling of Translucent Concrete Blocks, (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 3, Issue 3, (May-June 2013), 013-017.

Paper Title :: Simulation and Implementation of Interphase AC-AC topology for Voltage Sag Mitigation for Power Quality Improvisation
Author Name :: Nitin B. Surwase || H. B. Chaudhari
Country :: India
Page Number :: 30-37
The traditional voltage sag compensator, which isdynamic voltage restorer (DVR) has many disadvantages such as need of energy storage devices, having dc links and two stage power conversions. This increases its size, cost, power losses and control complexity. Also it is not adequate for compensating deep and long duration voltage sag. In this paper interphase AC AC topology is proposed for voltage sag compensation which suggeststhe idea of cross phase voltage injection. In this, sag supporter is connected in each phase which draws the power from remaining two phases. A single phase sag supporter is realized with two AC choppers and two transformers. The required injecting power is controlled by controlling the duty cycle of each chopper. It does not require any energy storage device hence the size, cost, and associated losses are decreased. Detail simulation along with results in MATLAB/Simulink for voltage sag due to single line to ground fault is presented in this paper.
KEYWORDS - Power quality, voltage sag, AC chopper
[1]. V. K Mehta, Rohit Mehta, Principle of Power System(revised edition, pp 300-309)
[2]. C. Benachaiba, and B. Ferdi"voltage quality improvement using DVR",Electrical Power Quality and Utilization, Journal VolXIV, No. 1, pp.39-45, 2008.
[3]. R.OmarandN.A.Rahim "power quality improvement in low voltagedistribution system using dynamic voltage restorer (DVR)"Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), 2010 the 5th IEEE Conference, pp. 973-978, 2010.
[4]. R. S. Vedam and M. S. Sarma, "power quality: VAR compensation in power systems''Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2009.
[5]. M. H. J. Bollen"understanding power quality problems". New York,NY, USA: IEEE Press, 2000.

Paper Title :: The Adoption of E-commerce in SMEs A case study on a sample of Iraqi enterprises
Author Name :: Thabit H. Thabit || Manaf B. Raewf || Omar T. Abdulrahman || Saif K. Younis
Country :: Iraq
Page Number :: 38-46
This paper describes the factors that Influence SMEs in Adopting of E-commerce, and the cost/benefits of using e-commerce in Iraqi SMEs. Fuzzy logic system has been used to analyze a set of questionnaires distributed among owners / managers of Iraqi SMEs. The researchers find many results in this paper , one of the most important result is that the adoption of e-commerce by SMEs in Iraq is affected by several factors which are perceived benefits, technology readiness, owners' innovativeness, owners' IT experience and owners' IT ability.
Keywords— E-commerce , SME , Fuzzy logic , Iraqi enterprises
[1] Rayport, J. F., and Jaworski, B. J., 2003, Commerce électronique, Chenelière, McGraw-Hill, Montréal (Québec), Canada, pp.652.
[2] Fraser J., Fraser N. , and McDonald F., 2000, The strategic challenge of electronic commerce‖, Supply Chain Management : An International Journal , 5(1) , pp.7-14.
[3] Chaffey, D., Ellis-Chadwick, F., Mayer, R. , and Johnston, K. , 2009, Internet marketing : strategy, implementation and practice , Prentice Hall.
[4] Kalakota, R. , and Whinston, A.B., 1996, Frontiers of electronic commerce, Addison Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc.
[5] Korper, Steffano , and Ellis, Juanita, 2000 , The E-Commerce Book : Building the E-Empire , Academic Press.

Paper Title :: A new method of channel allocation based on clustering for multi-radio, multi-channel wireless mesh networks
Author Name :: Hamid parvin || Faramarz karamizadeh || SeyedAhadZolfagharifar
Country :: Iran
Page Number :: 47-52
Since the multi-channel and multi-radio networks had been widely used, the channel allocation scheme plays a crucial role in determining the performance of wireless mesh networks plays. These days many channel allocation schemes to increase performance of wireless networks has been provided. However, most existing schemes interfere links on the link of target, at one level, are considered that this will be caused a sharp drop in network performance. In this study, a new scheme for channel allocation based on clustering will be done based on category that its difference with other methods in clustering, is that this method can distinguish between Interference links and it is classified. In this method by using calculation of category the maxima at Interference graph, this scheme logically divide the network into clusters and then channel allocation in three stages to reduce interference of links that include non-synchronized Interference and synchronized Interference is done.
Keywords: wireless mesh networks, channel allocation, multi-radio multi-channel, Interference
[1]. I. F. a. W. X. a. W. W. Akyildiz, "Wireless mesh networks: a survey," Computer networks, vol. 47, pp. 445-487, 2005.
[2]. W. a. S. S. a. Z. A. Y. Si, "An overview of channel assignment methods for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks," Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 70, pp. 505-524, 2010.
[3]. B. a. A. K. a. N. A. Raju, "A Distributed Cluster based Interference-Traffic aware CA for MRMC WMN," in Wireless Communication and Sensor Networks (WCSN), 2009 Fifth IEEE Conference on, IEEE, 2009, pp. 1-6.
[4]. S. A. a. G. M. Makram, "Distributed channel assignment for multi-radio wireless mesh networks," in Computers and Communications, 2008. ISCC 2008. IEEE Symposium on, IEEE, 2008, pp. 272-277.
[5]. N. a. B. C. a. B. S. a. M. I. a. D. P. Letor, "A cluster driven channel assignment mechanism for wireless mesh networks," in Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems, 2008. MASS 2008. 5th IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2008, pp. 659-665.

Paper Title :: Generalization of the Great Ricci Curvature Vector Formulae Based Upon the Great Metric Tensor in Cartesian Coordinates
Author Name :: Omonile, J.F || Koffa, D.F || Adeyemi, J.O || Howusu, S.X.K
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 53-58
In this paper, we expressed the Riemannian curvature tensor in terms of the Great Metric Tensor for all gravitational fields in nature in the Cartesian coordinates. Hence the results are used to derive the generalized Riemannian curvature scalar and Ricci Curvature tensor formulae in the Cartesian coordinates which are mathematically most elegant, physically most natural and satisfactory.
Keywords: Riemannian, Great Metric Tensor, Cartesian Coordinates and Ricci curvature Vector.
[1]. Howusu, S.X.K, Vector and Tensor Analysis; Jos: Jos University Press Limited; 2003
[2]. Kochin, N.E, Vector Calculations and Elements of Tensor Calculations; Nauka: Moscow; 1965
[3]. Howusu, S.X.K; Riemannian Revolutions in mathematics and physics ll, Anyigba: Kogi State University; 2009.
[4]. Koffa, D.J, Omonile, J.F, ogunleye, O.O, Rabba, J.A and Howusu, S.X.K; Riemannian Acceleration in Cartesian Coordinate Based Upon the Golden Metric Tensor; Physical Science International Journal; 2016: 9(3): 1-7
[5]. Spiegel, M.R; Theory and Problems of Vector Analysis and Introduction to Tensor Analysis; New York: Graw-Hill; 1974

Paper Title :: Simulation Framework for Manufacturing Systems with complex material Handling
Author Name :: Abid ThyabAl Ajeeli
Country :: Iraq
Page Number :: 59-78
This paper addresses the problem of manufacturing systems and their associated sub-assemblies and/or raw materials. A manufacturing system is a set of policies that monitors and controls finished products and raw materials. It determines how much of each item should be manufactured or be kept in warehouses, when low items should be replenished, and how many items should be assembled or be ordered when replenishment is needed. Practical manufacturing systems rarely optimize or even represent very precise descriptions of realistic situations. The art of model design is to develop commonsense approximations that give enough information to facilitate managerial decision making. A system with a high degree of intelligence is more robust and able to perform better performance in terms of lower cost and higher efficiency. The integration concept of manufacturing processing has enjoyed increased popularity among researchers and manufacturers. Integrated manufacturing system is a set of mathematical models and policies that monitors and controls raw items, subassemblies, and finished products. Although such systems provide a better utilization of resources they have a number of drawbacks due to the complexity of real-world problems. Using intelligent simulation techniques will lead to better automated systems. The framework allows the complex simulation model to be manageable for the purpose of adaptation to the changing environment variables. Moreover, the framework employs a material handling request-driven approach in order to implement both push and pull flows of production loads. The framework performed a steady state simulation to furnish top management with a clear understanding of the cost associated with warm up period. The steady state simulation also provides top managements with clear picture of how to make their production line more efficient in terms of profits as well as enabling to remove any processes that are overly complicated.
Keywords: manufacturing, raw material, discrete simulation, finished product, optimality, constraints, intelligent techniques, warm-up.
[1]. R. Driessel & L. Monch, (2007). Simulation framework for complex manufacturing systems with automated material handling, Proceedings of the 39th conference on Winter Simulation WSC'07, pp 1713-1721, IEEE Press Piscataway, NJ, USA ©2007. [2]. B. Ornella and T. Benny, (2008). "Towards an improved tool to facilitate simulation modeling of complex manufacturing systems". The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 43 (1-2): 191–199.
[3]. E. Turban and J. E. Aronson, (2001). "Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems", Prentice-Hall, third edition.
[4]. J. S. Smith, (2003). Survey on the use of simulation for manufacturing system design and operation, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, Volume 22, Issue 2, 2003, Pages 157-171.
[5]. W. Shen, Q. Hao H. J. Yoon and D. H. Norrie, (2006), Applications of agent-based systems in intelligent manufacturing: An updated review, Advanced Engineering Informatics Volume 20, Issue 4, October, Pages 415–431.

Paper Title :: Performance Analysis of a Direct Drive Small Wind Generator under Rectifier-Battery Load Conditions
Author Name :: Philip Oketch Akello || Joseph Ngugi Kamau || Francis Xavier Ochieng
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 79-83
This paper describes the rectifier-battery load testing procedure and performance analysis of a 1kW direct drive Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) generator of a Small Wind Turbine (SWT). The generator was designed with large number of poles to improve its performance at low wind speeds, and its efficiency was found to be high with values of between 75-89%.The rectifier-battery load tests was performed to evaluate expected generator battery charging performance when operated in the field under low wind speed conditions.The two major parameters that were determined, and which formed the study objectives were the generator cut-in wind at which it begins to charge the battery and the efficiency of the rectifier, or battery charging efficiency. The generator wasfound to have a low cut-in-speed for battery charging at 154 rpm (about 2.8 m/s). The battery charging efficiency of the bridge rectifier was significantly high at 78%.
Keywords: Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) Generator, Small Wind Turbine (SWT), Generator cut-in wind speed, Battery charging efficiency.
[1] International Energy Agency, IEA, World Energy Outlook Report 2012,IEA Publications, 9 rue de la Fédération 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France, November 2012.
[2] International Energy Agency, IEA, World Energy Outlook Report 2015, IEA Publications, 9 rue de la Fédération 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France, 2015.
[3] J. Kiplagat, R. Wang, and T. Li, "Renewable energy in Kenya: Resource potential and status of exploitation, "Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2011vol. 15, pp 2960– 2970.
[4] B. Berges, "Development of small wind turbines," Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, 2007.
[5] N. Madani, "Design of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator for a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine," Master Thesis, 2011.

Paper Title :: Transmission and storage of images Using Discrete Wavelet Transform
Author Name :: Santosh Kumar Sahoo || B.B.Choudhury
Country :: India
Page Number :: 84-88
As the massive data associated with the Image so for transmission and storage of digital images. It is necessary to compress the image in a perfect manner. This paper proposes a novel image compression structure centered on wavelet transformation (WT). The efficiency of the algorithm has been justified over several real images, and the performance of the algorithm has been matched with other common compression criteria. The procedure has been implemented using Visual C++. Experimental results prove that the proposed technique provides sufficient high compression ratios compared to other compression techniques.
KEYWORDS: Image Compression, Wavelet Transform,Digital images
[1]. DeVore,R.A.Jawerth, B. ; Lucier, B.J., "Image compression through wavelet transform coding", Information Theory, IEEE Transactions ,Volume:38 , Issue: 2 , Page(s):719 -746 ,( 2002)
[2]. Grgic,S.Grgic, M. ; Zovko-Cihlar, B., "performance analysis of image compression using wavelets", IEEE Transactions Volume:48 , Issue: 3 ,Page(s):682 – 695,(2001)
[3]. Tsung-Ching Wu, King-Chu Hung, Je-Hung Liu, Tung-Kuan Liu: "Wavelet-based ECG data compression optimization with genetic algorithm", Scientific Research,PP. 746-753,(2013)
[4]. Dr.BEswara Reddy and K VenkataNarayana "a lossless image compression using traditional and lifting based wavelets", Signal & Image Processing : An International Journal (SIPIJ) Vol.3, No.2, April 2012
[5]. A. Alice Blessie1, J. Nalini and S.C.Ramesh, "Image Compression Using Wavelet Transform Based on the Lifting Scheme and its Implementation", IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 8, Issue 3, No. 1,May 2011.

Paper Title :: IMPACT OF LEASE FINANCE ON PRODUCTIVITY, PROFITABILITY&EMPLOYMENT IN SMALL MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN BANGLADESH: STUDY ON UNITED LEASING COMPANY
Author Name :: Muhaiminul Islam || Sultana Nasira || Sarker Towfiq Pritom
Country :: Bangladesh
Page Number :: 89-108
Bangladesh is a small country but have a large population and a large market economy. Entrepreneurial activity is growing and the economy is on rise. Spread of education; improve transportation and technological advancement are fostering the growth aspiration of individual business FIRM. World financial organization like Asian development bank, International Finance Corporation, Commonwealth Organization and such many organizations came ahead to assist those small FIRMs to grow up. The NBFIS sector in Bangladesh consisting primarily of the development financial institutions, leasing enterprises, investment companies, merchant bankers etc. Non-bank financial sector is important to increase the mobilization of term savings and for the sake of providing support services to the capital market. The focus of this paper is to highlight impact of lease finance to strengthen the economic condition of small manufacturing organizations and their dependent population i.e. labor, owner, supplier.
[1]. Baldwin, J. and Picot, G. (1994), ―Employment Generation by Small Producers in Canadian Manufacturing Sector‖, Journal for Small Business Economics‖
[2]. Feeney, L. and Riding, A. (1997). ―Business Owners' Fundamental Tradeoff, Finance and the Vicious Circle of Growth and Control‖. Canadian Business Owners, November issue.
[3]. Lanjouw, J.O. and Lanjouw, P. (2001), The rural non-FIRM sector: issues and evidence from developing countries. Agricultural Economics, Vol. 26, pp. 1-23.
[4]. ―Lease Finance‖- Comptrollers' Hand Book, explored at http://www.comptrollershandbook.comon 12th February 2011
[5]. Mahesh S., (2010) ―SME Drives the Largest Job Creation in India‖: ASSOCHAM, 13thJuly 2010

Paper Title :: Site evaluation for Earth observation ground station
Author Name :: Ngo Duy Tan || Bui Trong Tuyen || Pham Minh Tuan
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 109-113
This paper presents key criteria for analysis and evaluation supporting the site selection of ground station for Earth observation (EO) satellite.Apart from the system configuration of the ground equipments itself, site conditions and satellite viewing capability are important factors requiring qualitative and quantitative assessment before construction and installation of the facilities. A case study is performed in Vietnam to demonstrate the process and its results.
KEYWORDS: Earth observation satellite, ground station, site selection
[1]. Bruce R.Elbert, The satellite communication ground segment earth station handbook (Artech House, 2000).
[2]. James R.Wertz and Wiley J. Larson, Space mission analysis and design (Microcosm, Inc. 3th Edition 1999).
[3]. Simon Haykin, Communication System (John Wiley & Sons, 4th Edition, 2001).
[4]. Richard Holdaway, Spacecraft systems engineering (John Wiley & Sons, 3th Edition, 2003).
[5]. Gérard Maral, Michel Bousquet, Satellite Communications System (John Wiley & Sons, 4th Edition, 2003).

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