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Vol. 2, No. 4 [April 2016]:

Paper Title :: Surface alloying of aluminium by W-Cu-Cr powder metallurgy tool electrodes in EDM
Author Name :: Shubhajit Das
Country :: India
Page Number :: 01-10
Aluminium alloys are used extensively due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. On the other hand, pure aluminium metal is much too soft for such uses and it does not have the high tensile strength that is needed. In this study, Electric Discharge Alloying (EDA) is used to modify the surface of aluminium with the help of tool electrodes manufactured by powder metallurgy (P/M) process. Surface alloying by material transfer during Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) has emerged as a key research area in the last decade. Though EDM is basically a material removal process, efforts have been made to use it as a surface treatment method to enhance the resistance to abrasion by depositing a thin layer. Electrodes have been made of W-Cu-Cr metal powders of 325 and 200 mesh sizes. The investigated process parameters are composition, compaction load, pulse on-time and peak current settings. Measurements of Material Transfer Rate (MTR), Tool Wear Rate (TWR) and Surface Roughness (Ra) were undertaken on the EDM-ed specimens. Taguchi‟s design of experiments and ANOVA has been used to find the effect of various process parameters on the output responses Overall Evaluation Criterion (OEC) was carried to find suitable process parameters aiding surface alloying in EDM.
KEYWORDS -Electric Discharge Alloying (EDA), Material Transfer Rate (MTR), Powder Metallurgy (P/M) electrodes, surface treatment, Overall Evaluation Criterion (OEC).
[1]. Kumar S., Singh R., Singh T.P., Sethi B.L., (2009) "Surface modification by electric discharge machining: A review", Journal of Materials Processing Technology 209 (2009) 3675-3687.
[2]. Wang, Z.L., Fang. Y, Wu. P.N., Zhao, W.S Cheng, K (2002) "Surface modification process by electrical discharge machining with a Ti powder green compact electrode" Journal of Materials Processing Technology 129, 139-142.
[3]. Kruth J.P, Stevens L, Froyen L, Lauwers B, (1995) "Study on the white layer of a surface machined by die sinking electro discharge machining". Annals of the CIRP 44 (1), 169-172.
[4]. Kumar S., Batra U., (2012), "Surface modification of die steel materials by EDM method using tungsten powder- mixed dielectric", Journal of Manufacturing Processes 14 (2012) 35-40.
[5]. Tasi H.C., Yan B.H., Huang F.Y., (2003) "EDM performance of Cr/Cu-based composite electrodes", International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacturing 43 (2003)245-252.

Paper Title :: Exploiting Ontology in web Personalization/Recommendat
Author Name :: Vinayak, Brajesh Pandey
Country :: India
Page Number :: 15-17
Web pages are personalized based on the characteristics (interests, social category, context, ...) of an individual. Personalization technology enables the lively insertion, customization or hint of content in any format that is pertinent to the individual user, based on the user‟s implicit actions and inclinations, and explicitly given details. In this work, context is taken out from Ontology in terms of concepts. Ontology is utilized to recognize topics that might be of attention to a specific user. For example, the query "Python‟ will be expanded with "programming language", for the users fascinated in computer programming language, and with "snake‟, for the users fascinated in "wild life".
Keywords: Web Mining, Recommendation, Usage Mining, Personalization
[[1] Dai, H., B. Mobasher, Integrating Semantic Knowledge with Web Usage Mining for Personalization (with). In Web Mining: Applications and Techniques, Anthony Scime (ed.), IRM Press, Idea Group Publishing. 2005.
[2] Antonio Hernando, "Trees for explaining recommendations made through collaborative filtering", Information Sciences, Vol. 239, 2013, pp. 1–17.
[3] B. Mobasher, R. Cooley, and J. Srivastava, "Automatic Personalization Based on Web Usage Mining," Comm. ACM, vol. 43, no. 8, Aug. 2000, pp. 142-151.
[4] Brusilovsky, P., Kobsa, A. and Nejdl, W. Eds. The Adaptive Web: Methods and Strategies of Web Personalization. Springer Verlag, 2007, doi 10.1007/978--3--540--72079--9.
[5] Bamshad Mobasher, Data Mining for Web Personalization, The Adaptive Web: Methods and Strategies of Web Personalization. Springer Verlag, 2007, doi 10.1007/978-3-540-72079-9.

Country :: India
Page Number :: 18-21
Cohesive energy and anharmonic properties such as Moelwyn – Hughes (C1), Grüneisen parameter   , Anderson – Grüneisen parameter   , second Grüneisen – parameter q and Debye temperature   D  have been computed for alkali earth oxides and Serenium BaO, CaO, MgO, SrO, BaSe, CaSe, MgSe and SrSe to ascertain the nearly true form of interionic interaction consisting of long range as well as short-range overlap repulsive interaction energy. The results so obtained are very close to the observed values. This study is capable enough to establish the relative superiority of one form of short-range interaction model over that of other model.
[1]. M.J.I Sangster & R.M Atwood J.PhysC 11, 1541, 1978,
[2]. V.C Jain & J.Shankar –Indian J.Pure applied Phys 132, 99, 1979,
[3]. J.Shankar& K.Singh Physics Status solid (b) 109, 411, 1982,
[4]. J.Shankar& G.G Agarwal Phys status solid (b) 123, 11, 1982,
[5]. V.P Gupta & S.K Sapani J. Phys Chem Solid 51,141,1990,

Author Name :: Santosh Kr. Singh || B.S Malik || S.S. Dhaka || Santosh Kumar
Country :: India
Page Number :: 22-26
Genetic improvement of indigenous breeds of cattle is essential for sustainable dairy industry. Sahiwal is best indigenous dairy breeds of cattle. The present study was conducted on performance records of 492 Sahiwal cows maintained at Government Livestock Farm (GLF), Hisar, Haryana and distributed over a period of 20 years from 1994 to 2013. The breeding value of sires estimated by using least square method (LSM) procedure for test day milk records, first lactation milk yield (FLMY) and first lactation peak yield (FLPY) indicated that sires in the top five positions share their ranks in the uppermost positions irrespective of test day milk record used. Model for LSM included year and season of calving as fixed effects and sire as random effect. Results for FLMY revealed that sire number 731 had the highest genetic merit for FLMY (2645.54 kg) and sire number 208 had lowest genetic merit (1161.67 kg). Result for FLPY revealed that sire number 668 had the highest genetic merit (9.07 kg) and sire number 376 had lowest genetic merit (5.46 kg). The rank and product moment correlations between the sires calculated among test days records ranged from 0.19 to 0.98 and 0.19 to 0.97, for first lactation milk yield varies from 0.45 to 0.60 and 0.50 to 0.66 and for first peak yield varies from 0.34 to 0.85 and 0.36 to 0.84, respectively.
Key words: Test day milk yield, first lactation milk yield, first peak yield, sire value.
[1]. Banik, S and Gandhi, R. S. (2010). Sire evaluation using single and multiple trait animal models in Sahiwal cattle. Indian J. Anim. Sci.80: 269-70
[2]. Basic Animal husbandry statistics. (2014) Department of Animal Husbandry Dairying and Fisheries Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.
[3]. Dalal, D. S., Rathi, S.S. and Raheja, K.L. 1999. Genetic evaluation of Haryana sires for test day milk records and first lactation milk yield. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 69: 1042-1043
[4]. Deulkar, P.B. and Kothekar, M.D. 1999. Sire evaluation considering first lactation yield for improvement of lifetime production in Sahiwal. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 69(4): 240-242.
[5]. Harvey, W.R. 1979. Accuracy of simplified regressed least squares (SRLS) vs. BLUP method for ranking sires. Indian J. Anim. Genet. Breed. 1(1): 7-19.

Paper Title :: Simulation and Experimental study of brushless cascaded doubly fed machine as a BDFM
Author Name :: Naceur Ben Ameur || Haythem Ben Ameur || Kais Tlili || Mohamed Faouzi Mimouni
Country :: Tunisia
Page Number :: 27-40
The Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine (BDFM) is a new-type of electrical machine. It combine the favorable characteristic of the asynchronous motor and synchronous generator. This type of machine solve the structural problems of brushless. This paper presents the principle, structure and operation mode of BDFM, it is devoted to not only the simulation, but also the experimentation of BDFM. This study used three cascaded machine to successfully emulate a proper BDFM, therefore, a study were held on the speed-torque and current relationship , with one fixed constant at a time. Last but not least, this paper illustrates the open-loop control of the said BDFM.
Keywords: Brushless doubly-fed machine, steady-state operating, asynchronous mode, synchronous mode, open-loop.
[1]. N. Patin, E. Monmasson, and J. P. Louis "Modeling and Control of a Cascaded Doubly Fed Induction Generator Dedicated to Isolated Grids", IEEE Trans. Indus Elec, Vol.56, No. 10, octobre 2009, pp. 4207-4219.
[2]. J. Poza, E. Oyarbide, I. Sarasola, and M. Rodriguez " Unified reference frame dq model of the brushless doubly fed machine ", IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 153, No. 5, pp.726-734, Sep. 2006.
[3]. P C Roberts., R A McMahon, P J Tavnery, J M Maciejowski, T J Flack "An equivalent circuit for the Brushless Doubly Fed Machine (BDFM) including parameter estimation and experimental varication"
[4]. I. Sarasola, J. Poza, M. A. Rodriguez, G. Abad "Direct torque control design and experimental evaluation for the brushless doubly fed machine", Energy Conversion andManagement, Vol. 52, pp. 1226–1234, 2011.
[5]. Sh. Shao, E. Abdi, F. Barati, and R. A. McMahon, " Stator-Flux Oriented Vector Control for Brushless Doubly Fed Induction Generator" IEEE TRANS. IND. ELE., VOL. 56, NO. 10, pp.4220-4228, OCT. 2009.

Paper Title :: Design and Analysis of Planetary Gearbox for Industrial Concrete Mixer
Author Name :: Siddhant Dange || Saket Sant || Anish Sali || Parthan Pethodam || Mr. Sandeep Belgamwar
Country :: India
Page Number :: 41-45
An epicyclic gear train or a planetary gear train is a gear train in which one gear is fixed and the meshing gear has a motion composed of two parts, namely, a rotation about its own axis and a rotation about the axis of the fixed gear. The fixed gear is called the sun gear, whereas the revolving gear is called the planet gear. Epicyclic gear trains achieve high reduction ratio in a small and power dense package. [1]. Gears in the Epicyclic gear trains are one of the most critical components in the mechanical power transmission system in which failure of one gear will affect the whole transmission system, thus it is very necessary to determine the causes of failure in an attempt to reduce them. The different modes of failure of gears and their possible remedies to avoid the failure are mentioned in J.R. Davis (2005) , Khurmi & Gupta (2006), P. Kannaiah (2006) as bending failure (load failure), Pitting (contact stresses), scoring and abrasive wear. Epicyclic Gear Trains have been used in Industry for their many advantages which includes high torque capacity, comparatively smaller size, lower weight, improved efficiency and highly compact package [2].This research paper helps in designing the planetary gear pair required for an industrial concrete mixer, since instead of giving an individual power source to cause the planetary motion, a gear drive can be used which will reduce the input power to be supplied to the machine, thus improving its efficiency of mixing or mechanical efficiency. This paper also helps in determining the probable cause by which the gear pair will fail, as well as countermeasures to prevent its failure.
KEYWORDS- Concrete, Gearbox, Industrial, Mixer, Planeta
[1]. .B Bhandari, Design of Machine Elements-3rd edition, McGraw-Hill Education, 2010, 31-32,647-90
[2]. Syed Ibrahim Dilawer, Md. Abdul Raheem Junaidi, Dr.S.Nawazish Mehdi, Design, Load Analysis and Optimization of Compound Epicyclic Gear Trains,American Journal of Engineering Research Volume-02, Issue-10, pp-146-153, 2013
[3]. B. Gupta, A. Choubey, V. Gautam, Contract Stress analysis of Spur gear, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 1(4), 2012, 2278-0181.
[4]. M. RameshKumar, P. Sivakumar, S. Sundaresh, K. Gopinath, Load sharing Analysis of High-Contact-Ratio spur Gear in Military Tracked Vehicle Applications, Gear Technology, 1(3), 2010, 43-50.
[5]. P. Sunyoung, J. Lee, U. Moon, D. Kim, Failure analysis of planetary gear carrier of 1200 HP transmission, Engineering Failure Analysis, 17(1), 2010, 521-529.

Paper Title :: Study Of Planetary Concrete Mixers
Author Name :: Siddhant Dange || Saket Sant || Anish Sali || Parthan Pethodam || Mr. Sandeep Belgamwar
Country :: India
Page Number :: 46-51
The mixing is certainly the most critical phase of the concrete production process and the quality of the concrete depends heavily on the quality of the mixer. Due to the efficiency of the compulsory mixing action, the planetary mixers meet the requirements of various production processes. The mixing flow is highly efficient due to integrated action of central stars combined with different peripheral scrapers. This research paper aims to study the various types of concrete mixers, discuss the advantages of the planetary concrete mixer over all the other type of mixers, and study the various components of the planetary mixer in detail.
KEYWORDS: Concrete, Mixers, Mixing Arms,Planetary, Scrapper Arm
[1]. Chiara F. Ferris, Concrete Mixing Methods and Concrete Mixers: State of the Art, Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Volume 106, Number 2, March–April 2001, 391-399
[2]. J. Dils, G. De Schutter and V. Boel, Influence of mixing procedure and mixer type on freshand hardened properties of concrete: a review, Materials and Structures (2012), 10 May 2012, 1673–1683
[3]. D. S. Dickey And J. B. Fasano, Mechanical Design Of Mixing Equipment, In Edward L. Paul (Ed), Handbook Of Industrial Mixing : Science And Practice, (Published By John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2004), 1247-1332

Paper Title :: Design and application of a solar water heater in a temperate region: a case study of obudu cattle ranch
Author Name :: Jerome .G.Egbe || Godwin A.Akeke || Daniel .N. Abara || Stephen .A. Takim || Edmond G.Ewah
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 52-60
The Obudu Cattle Ranch is located in Obaniku local government area in northern part of Cross River State. The Ranch was established in 1949 in the then Obudu local government areas now Obaniku. The Ranch is about 332 km from Calabar, the Capital of Cross River State with an altitude of 1,716 metres and located on a plateau of about 1,575.76 metres above sea level. The Ranch has 11 km of unwinding road with 22 bends makes movement into the Ranch quite exhilarating. Similarly, the Ranch has temperature ranges from 260 C to 320 C during the dry season and 40C to 100 C during the raining season respectively.Solar water heating (SWH) systems use solar collectors and a liquid handling unit to transfer heat to the load, generally via a storage tank.In this research paper the system only works in the months of 1-3, 10 and 12, however the water temperature is not high enough to be used in heating and therefore the system is inefficient due to fluctuations in the Cattle Ranch weather condition, but some places in the Obudu Local Government Areas the Solar heating system can work very efficiently and perfectly. As the irradiance and ambient temperature increase the system slowly increases in efficiency, where the system peaks between months 8 and 9 (~38%) the ambient temperature and irradiance begins to decrease from months 9-12, so does the efficiency, and it can be demonstrated that from the location chosen the system generates power in months 1-11; however, in month 12 there is power lost from the system to the environment. The system only works in the months of 1-3, 10 and 12 respectively.
KEYWORDS: Obudu Cattle Ranch, Solar Water, Heating Systems, Thermal Fluid, Storage Tank
[1]. John Twidell., Tony Weir., "Renewable Energy Resources". Second edition. Oxon: Taylor and Francis, 2006.
[2]. Ministry of Natural Resources Canada, "Clean Energy Project Analysis: RETScreen Engineering & Cases Textbook" 2001-2004.
[3]. Kaushik S C., Kumar R, Garg H P. "Effect of baffle plate on the performance of a triangular built-in-storage solar water heater."Energy Conversion and Management, 1995; 36: 337–42.
[4]. Invent Now, "Hall of Fame: Clarence M. Kemp", National Inventors Hall of Fame, 2010. http://www.invent.org/hall_of_fame/438.html [assessed 21st March, 2016.]
[5]. NASA Technical Note D-5353 "Solar Absorptances and Spectral Reflectance's of 12 Metals for Temperatures Ranging from 300-500K". Lewis Research Centre, Cleveland Ohio, 1969. http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19690022517_1969022517.pdf [assessed 28th March, 2012.]

Country :: India
Page Number :: 61-66
This paper presents a methodology for multiple distributed generator (DG) placement in primary distribution network for loss reduction. Optimal location for distributed generator (DG) is selected by Analytical expressions and the optimal DG size calculated by IA method and loss sensitivity factor (LSF). These two methods are tested on two test systems 33-bus and 69-bus radial distribution systems. The final results showed that LSF gives same loss reduction and minimum voltage in the system with less DG size than obtained in IA method.
Index Terms—IA method, Loss Sensitivity Factor, optimal location, Optimal DG size, Multiple DG, Analytical Expressions, Distributed generation.
[1]. Duong Quoc Hung, Nadarajah Mithulananthan "Multiple Distributed Generator Placement in Primary Distribution Networks for Loss Reduction," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, Feb.2011.
[2]. D. Singh and R. K. Misra, "Effect of load models in distributed generation planning," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 2204-2212, Nov. 2007.
[3]. M.N. Marwali, J.W. Jung, and A. Keyhani, "Stability analysis of load sharing control for distributed generation systems", IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 737-745, Sep. 2007.
[4]. I. El-Samahy and E. El-Saadany, "The effect of DG on power quality in a deregulated environment," in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Gen. Meet., 2005, vol. 3, pp. 2969-2976.
[5]. H.B. Puttgen, P.R. MacGregor, and F.C. Lambert, "Distributed generation: Semantic hype or the dawn of a new era?", IEEE Power Energy Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 22-29, Jan./Feb. 2003.

Author Name :: A.D. Jaisree || R. Umagowri || S.K. Rajesh Kanna
Country :: India
Page Number :: 67-71
This paper addresses the issue of identifying the best Bin Packing pattern from the available bins by satisfying the packing constraints. This research adopted the concept of smart operator that allows setting the genetic parameters for any kind of situations and thereby increasing the performance of any packing problem. The result obtained from this heuristic algorithm matches with several lower bounds proposed in the literature. The developed smart operators have many applications.
Keywords: Bin Packing, genetic algorithm, smart operator, constraints.
[1]. Adewumi A.O. and Ali M.M. 'A Multi-Level Genetic Algorithm for A Multi-Stage Space Allocation Problem' Journal of Mathematical and Computer Modelling, Vol. 51, Issues 1-2, 2010, pp. 109-126.
[2]. Andrew Lim and Xingwen Zhang, 'Integer Programming and Simulated Annealing for Scheduling Sports Competition on Multiple Venues', The Fifth Meta-heuristics International Conference, Kyoto, Japan, August 25–28, 2003.
[3]. Armando Ponce Perez, Arturo Perez-Garcia and Victor Ayala-Ramirez, 'Bin Packing Using Genetic Algorithms', Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers, IEEE, 2005.
[4]. Andreas Bortfeldt, 'A Genetic Algorithm for the Two-Dimensional Strip Packing Problem with Rectangular Pieces', European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 172, 2006, pp. 814–837.
[5]. Edmund Burke and Graham Kendall, 'Comparison of Meta-Heuristic Algorithms for Clustering Rectangles', Journal of Computers and Industrial Engineering, Citeseer, Vol. 37, Issue 1, 1999, pp.383-386.

Author Name :: Dr. Qamar ul Arafeen || Najam ul Arifeen |\ M. S. Shamim Ahmed
Country :: Pakistan
Page Number :: 72-74
Computers, the invention of the 20th century, have played a vital role in transforming our lives and the world around us. In order to keep pace with the modern world, it is necessary that we must get equipped with the basic knowledge regarding computers. For this purpose, various institutes in Pakistan and abroad have introduced the discipline known as digital forensics in their institutes. This research paper incudes the basic curriculum pattern required to teach this discipline across various institutes which will enable the students of digital forensics to get basic knowledge regarding the field of information technology.
KEYWORDS - Basic knowledge, Curriculum pattern, Digital forensics, Equipped, Information technology, Vital
[1]. ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula. Computer Science Curricula 2013[Tech. rep.].
[2]. ACM Press and IEEE Computer Society Press; December 2013. Bashir M., Applequist J., Campbell R., DeStefano L., Garcia G., Lang A. Development and Dissemination of a New Multidisciplinary Undergraduate Curriculum in Digital Forensics.
[3]. Conference on Associate Digital Forensics, Security and Law (ADFSL). Richmond, VA, USA: 2014.
[4]. Chi H, Dix-Richardson F, Evans D. Designing a computer forensics concentration for cross-disciplinary undergraduate students. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Information Security Curriculum Development Conference.
[5]. New York, NY, USA: ACM; 2010. pp. 52e7. Cooper P, Finley GT, Kaskenpalo P. Towards standards in digital forensics education. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ITiCSE Working Group Reports. New York, NY, USA: ACM; 2010. pp. 87e95.

Paper Title :: Prediction of airfoil lift coefficient in rain conditions using artifi-cial neural network
Author Name :: Zhenlong Wu || Yihua Cao
Country :: China
Page Number :: 75-87
This paper presents the artificial neural network (ANN) model for predicting the lift coeffi-cient aerodynamic performance of a NACA 64-210 airfoil in rain conditions. In order to determine the capability of the ANN technique on estimating the prediction value for lift coefficient, a wind-tunnel experiment is referred to in this study. in the experiment, 75 samples of data concerned with the airfoil lift coefficient in rain are se-lected. The MATLAB ANN toolbox is employed for the modeling purpose with some justifications. The Le-venberg-Marquardt (trainlm), mean squared error (MSE), tangent sigmoid (tansig) for feedforward back-propagation networks is adopted as the training algorithm, performance and transfer functions, respectively. With three nodes in the input layer and one node in the output layer, eight network structures are chosen with different numbers of nodes in the hidden layer which are 3-1-1, 3-3-1, 3-6-1, 3-7-1, 3-1-1-1, 3-3-3-1, 3-6-6-1 and 3-7-7-1 structures. It is found that the 3-7-7-1 network structure gives the best prediction results of the lift coefficients of the airfoil in rain conditions. Finally, the effects of rain modeling parameters on the lift coeffi-cients of the airfoil in rain conditions are discussed through a comparison between the experimental and the best 3-7-7-1 structure predicted results.
Keywords: ANN Airfoil Lift coefficient Rain
[1]. Yihua Cao, Zhenlong Wu, Zhengyu Xu. Effects of rainfall on aircraft aerodynamics. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 2014, 71: 85-127.
[2]. Rhode, R. V. Some effects of rainfall on flight of airplanes and on instrument indications, NASA TN-903, 1941.
[3]. Fred Hermanspann. Rain effects on natural laminar flow airfoils. AIAA paper 96-0899, 1996.
[4]. Adams, K. J. The Air Force Flight Test Center Artificial Icing and Rain Testing Capability. AIAA-83-2688, 1983.
[5]. Hansman, R. J. and Craig, A. P. Low Reynolds number tests of NACA 64-210, NACA 0012, and Wortman FX67-K170 airfoils in rain, Journal of Aircraft, 1987, 24, (8), pp 559-566.

Paper Title :: Analysis and Performance of Linear Quadratic Regulator and PSO algorithm in optimal control of DC motor
Author Name :: Arnisa Myrtellari || Petrika Marango || Margarita Gjonaj
Country :: Albania
Page Number :: 88-93
DC motors are widely used in the mechanisms that require control of speed. PID controller are widely used for speed control. But they aren't suitable for high performance cases, because of the low robustness of PID controller. Many researchers have been studying various new control techniques in order to improve the system performance. The objective of the paper is control speed of DC motor using different control strategies for comparison purpose. A comparison is made between three control methods and the controllers are PID conventional controller by using Ziegler-Nichols method, Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm in tuning PID controller and Linear Quadratic Regulator. The DC Motor system drive is modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK. LQR and PSO algorithm are implemented using MATLAB toolbox. Graphs obtained from the simulations demonstrate a very good performance of the proposed system using PSO algorithm then other controllers used in this paper.
KEYWORDS - Optimal control of speed, LQR, PSO
[1] R.Krishnan, Electric motor drives, modeling, analysis, and control, PHI Inc. 2003.
[2] P. Marango, Kontrolli Automatik, SHBLU, 2003
[3] Desineni . S. Naidu, Optimal control systems, CRC Press LLC,2010, [4] Andrea E. Olsson, Particle Swarm Optimization: Theory, Techniques and Applications (Engineering Tools, Techniques and Tables), Nova Science Pub Inc ( 2011)
[5] B. Nagaraj , S.Subha, B.Rampriya, Tuning Algorithms for PID Controller Using Soft Computing Techniques, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.8 No.4, April 2008

Paper Title :: Metal Complexes as ligand : Binuclear Ni(II) and Cu(II) metal chelates of p-Methylisonitrosoacetophenone with Alkaline earth metal salts
Author Name :: O.P.Gupta || Avinash Kumar
Country :: India
Page Number :: 94-99
A number of new binuclear complexes have been synthesised by interaction of stable Ni(II) and Cu(II) metal chelates of p-Methylisonitroacetosophenone with Alkaline earth metal salts having general formula[Ma(p-MeINAP)2MbL2 or MbX2]where Ma=Ni(II) or Cu(II),p-MeINAP = deprotonated p-MethyiIsonitrosoacetophenone, Mb= Ca++or Mg++,L = deprotonated ortho amino benzoic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline X=ClO4-or Cl- . The IR Spectral studies suggest that the Ni(II) and Cu(II) metal chelates act as ligand and coordination towards alkaline earth metal salts takes place through oxygen atom of oximino group. The diffuse reflectance electronic spectra and magnetic moment values of the metal chelates and binuclear complexes with alkaline earth metal salts indicate the change in geometry during complex formation.
Keyword: p-Methylisonitrosoacetophenone, Ortho amino benzoic acid, perchlorate, chloride and 8-hydroxyquinoline.
[1]. Esinn and CM Harris : CoordChem Rev 4(1969) 391
[2]. S J Gruber, Esinn and CM Harris : InorgChem 7(1968) 268
[3]. S J Gruber, Esinn and CM Harris : InorgnuclChem 30(1968) 1805
[4]. C Floriani et al : J ChemSoc(Dalton) (1976) 2310
[5]. L G Armstrong H C Lip, L F Lindoy, M McPartlin& P A Tasker : J ChemSoc(1977) 1771

Paper Title :: An Analysis Different Techniques For Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognization
Author Name :: Ms. Ravina R. Wankhede || Ms. Manisha S Gola || Ms Ashvini R. Golande || Ms. Dipali A Deshmukh || Prof. A. D. Bhopale
Country :: India
Page Number :: 01-07
This paper describe some basic technique for feature extraction application to character recognition . In this paper we describe devnagari language. It is scripting language which has 14 vowels and 33 consonants, compound character .we use pattern recognition process. It is very simple and it requires less calculation. Due to this it can easily executable on any hardware and software source platform. It is use in signature recognition, postcode recognition, passport readers, government records, bank cheques and offline document recognition.
Keywords— Image processing, MATLAB, command database, NNA , steniford algorit
[1]. Mausumi Acharyya, Rajat K. De " Extraction of Features Using M-Band Wavelet Packet Frame and Their Neuro - Fuzzy Evaluation for Multitexture Segmentation" IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE, VOL. 25, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2003.pp-20-21
[2]. Dr.P.S.Deshpande and Latesh Malik, "Fine Classification & Classification of HandWritten Devnagari Characters with Regular Expressions & Minimum Edit Distance Method JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, VOL. 3, NO. 5, MAY 2008. Pp-55-58
[3]. Ajmire P.E. and Wankhede S.E. " Handwritten Marathi character (vowel) recogn ition". Advances in Information Mining, ISSN: 0975–3265, Volume 2, Issue 2, 2010, pp- 11-13.
[4]. Anilkumar N. Holambe , Dr.Ravinder.C.Thool and Dr.S.M.Jagade, "Printed and Handwritten Character & Number Classification of Devanagari Script using Gradient Features", International Journal of Computer Applications Volume 2 – No.9, June 2010 pp-25-27.
[5]. S. Arora, D. Bhattacharjee, M. Nasipuri, D. K. Basu & M. Kundu, "Classification of Non-Compound Handwritten Devnagari Characters using a Combination of MLP and Minimum Edit Distance," International Journal of Computer Science and Security (IJCSS),Volume (4):Issue ( 1)pp-19-20

Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 08-16
This is a descriptive study design focused on the study of the pattern and trend of enrolment and dropouts among primary and secondary school students in Nigeria with the north central geopolitical region as a case study. The objective is to establish the magnitude of dropout occurrence. The populations of study consist of data on all the students enrolled in the states of the North-central region of Nigeria who could not complete the basic study before leaving school. Data was analysed using statistical methods of Mean, Time series, Regression Bar chart and percentages. From the analysis it was found that high rate of student dropouts is a common phenomenon in all the states under study in both primary and secondary schools. The rate of dropouts among male students was also found to be higher than their female counterparts in transition from primary to secondary schools in the period under review.
KEYWORDS: Education, Dropout, North-Central, Nigeria.
[1]. Adetula, G.O. (2010). Improving the Supervisory skills and competencies of Inspectors of Mathematics education in schools. Nigerian Journal of Professional Teachers, 1(2): 38-50.
[2]. Adeyemi J.A; & Ige, A.M. (2002).Examination malpractices in Nigerian educational system: Causes, effects and the way out. Journal of Clinical and Counseling Psychology, 8(1): 59-75
[3]. Alabi, T (2005). Achieving Universal Basic Education in Nigeria. What Role for Open School? UBE Forum, 4: (69-76)
[4]. Alani, R. A. (2001). Training & utilization of educational administrators and planners in Nigeria. In N.A. Nwagwu; FT. Ehiametalor; M.A. Ogunu & M. Nwadiani (lids.), Current issues in educational management in Nigeria (pp. 92-102). Benin: Ambik Press Limited.
[5]. BamisayeE.A: Qualitative Primary and Secondary Education in Nigeria Implications for Implementation.

Paper Title :: Synthesis and characterization of ternary complexes of copper(II)-, nickel(II)-, zinc(II)- cobalt(II)- and mercury(II)-theophylline with ethylenediamine
Author Name :: Md. Moniruzzaman || Md. Korban Ali || Md. Azizul Haque || Al-Mahmud
Country :: Bangladesh
Page Number :: 17-22
Several new ternary complexes of copper(II)-, nickel(II)-, zinc(II)- cobalt(II)- and mercury(II)-theophylline with ethylenediamine have been synthesized and characterized. Various physico-chemical methods including solubility, melting point, metal content estimation, IR and UV-Visible spectra, magnetic moment data, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric analysis have been employed for their characterization.
Keywords: Theophylline, Ethylenediamine, IR and UV-Visible spectra,Thermogravimetric and Differential Scanning CalorimetricAnalysis, Melting points andComplex Compounds.
[1]. N. Shohreh, S. Abolfazl, Z. Shokrollah, and D. Maryam, "Interaction of metal ions with caffeine and theophylline: stability and structural features", J. Biomol. Struct.Dyn., 2003,21(2).
[2]. V. Francesco, A. Rao, A. Kalpit, A. Julie, and D.M. Aalten,"Investigation of inhibition and binding modes", Chemistry and biology, 2005, 12, p 973-980.
[3]. P. Jacek, G. Anna, U. Katarzyna, O. Jakub, C. Agataand W. Grzegorz, "Methylxanthines (caffeine,pentoxifylline and theophylline) decrease the mutagenic effect of daunomycin, doxorubicin and mitoxantrone",ActaBiochim. Pol., 2005, 52(4), p 923-926.
[4]. M. Kiriaki, F. Duclerc, A. Parra Maria José, V. Oliveira Oscar, B. Ademar,"Study of theophilline stability on polymer matrix",Santos. SP. Brazil, September 30 to October 5, 2007.
[5]. S.S.Marwaha, J. Kaurand G.S. Sodhi, "Structure determination and anti- inflammatory activity of some purine complexes", Met Based Drugs,1995,2(1), p 13-17.

Paper Title :: A simple demonstration of the laser beam
Author Name :: Petar V. Vuca
Country :: Serbia
Page Number :: 23-24
This work contains instructions for a school experiment with laser light. A physical experiment is a fundamental method for a physics teacher, used in revising and establishing certain lessons. There is a tendency nowadays to plan lessons of experimental work in the syllabus and to create conditions for their realization. U paper provided guidelines for school demonstration experiments with laser light.
Keywords: Laser, plastic hose, fiber and balloon.
[1]. J. Simovic, D. Koledin. Practicum in biophysics, medical book Belgrade-Zagreb., In 1991.
[2]. R. Krsnik. Modern ideas in the methodology of teaching physics. School books. Zagreb, 2008.
[3]. Mitra Smiljanic-Grujic, prakrikum Demonstration in teaching physics, Thesis, Novi Sad, 2007.
[4]. Julien Clinton Sprott. Phusics Demonstrations, The University of Wisconsin Press, 1930 Monroe Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, Copyright,, 2006. W.S.Boyle, Scientific American 237,40 (Aug 1977).
[5]. E.E.Basch, Ed., Optical-Fiber Transmission, Howard W.Sams§Company: Indianapolis (1987).

Author Name :: Pooja malviya || Dr. Pradeep kumar
Country :: India
Page Number :: 25-30
Water storage reservoirs and overhead tank are used to store water. To achieve imperviousness of concrete, higher density of concrete should be achieved. Today, water demand is increasing day by day. The scarcity of water for public uses is becoming an problem. The water demand is fluctuating throughout the day. Continuous water distribution may result in heavy loss of water by the users. To save water, water harvesting schemes have been implemented and supported by the government. The water harvesting from different sources is to be stored at various levels and regions. Therefore, construction of water tanks is required having minimum capital cost and time with specified quality. In this thesis using ESR & GSR software. The thesis describes, water tanks constructed in different regions having different soil conditions. The cost of water tanks is evaluated on basis of the soil conditions and taking account of seismic and wind effects on water tanks. The design of appropriate water yanks are evolved by using working stress method. The main objective of this project to study the effect of seismic and wing on reinforcement and concrete elevated intze water tanks in seismic zones II,III,IV and V or wind zone I, II, III, IV and V for black coton, ordinary and soft murum soil conditions for different component of super stucture of the intze water tanks.
[1]. Is Code- 1893-2002
[2]. Is: 3370 (1965) (Part I) "Code of practice for Concrete Structures for the storage of Liquids" General Requirements, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.
[3]. IS: 875-1987 (Part I-IV), "Code for design consideration of loads on structures", Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
[4]. IS: 456-2000, "Code of practice for plain and R.C. Structures", Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
[5]. I.C. Syal, A.K. Goal, "Reinforced concrete structures", Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

Country :: India
Page Number :: 31-35
A rigorous theoretical approach has been employed to produce the cohesion and anharmonic behaviour of alkali (mainly sodium) and silver halide crystals evaluated by using the interaction potential model consisting of long range coulomb interaction vander Waals interaction (vdw) due to dipole-dipole and dipole-quadrupole interactions, three-body interactions (TBI) and a short-range overlap repulsive interaction operative up to the computation of next nearest neighbour (NNN). The values of coulomb energy, vander Waals interaction energy, overlap repulsive interaction energy, three-body interaction energy and hence the cohesive energy, isothermal bulk modules, Moelwyn hughes parameter, Debye temperature and Grüneisen parameter (using Slater, Dugdale Mc Donald and Free volume theories) have been computed and are very close to the observed values in literature.
Keywords:- Overlap short-range repulsive potential dipole-dipole dipole-quadruple interaction energy Moelwyn Hughes parameter, Grüneisen parameter etc.
[1]. M. Born and J. E. Mayer, Z. Phys., 1932, 75. I.
[2]. J. E. Mayer, J. Chem. Phys., 1993, 1,270.
[3]. F. G. Fumi and M. P. Tosi, J. Phys. Chem., Solids, 1962, 23, 359.
[4]. E. I. E. Rittner, J. Chem. Phys., 1951, 19, 1030.
[5]. Y. P. Varshni and R. C. Shukla, J. Chem. Phys., 1961, 35, 582.

Author Name :: Monika G. Ghorale || Ankur O. Bang
Country :: India
Page Number :: 36-41
This paper focus on the study of Wireless Ad Hoc networks and its routing protocols, As we know this is an emerging field which places lot of contribution in networking field.. In Ad Hoc networks nodes are moving from one place to another place, within this network any node can join the network and can leave the network at any time. An ad-hoc routing protocol is a convention, that controls how nodes decide which way to route packets between computing devices in wireless ad hoc network . In ad-hoc networks, nodes are not familiar with the topology of their networks. Instead, they have to discover it. In this paper we concentrate on two types of wireless Ad-hoc networks namely Mobile Ad-hoc Network and Wireless Sensor Network.
[1]. Vanita Rani, PG Student, Dr. Renu Dhir," A Study of Ad- Hoc Network: A Review" International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013.
[2]. S.Ganesan, B.Loganathan "A Survey of Ad-Hoc Network: A Survey" International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8–August 2013.
[3]. Senthilkumar P., Baskar M. and Saravanan K., "A Study on Mobile Ad-Hock Networks (MANETS)", JMS, Vol. No.1, Issue No.1, September 2011.
[4]. M. Conti and S. Giordano. "Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: Milestones, Challenges, and New Research Directions" IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 52, pp. 85-96. 2014.
[5]. Bimal H Patel, Parth D Shah, Harikrishna B Jethva, Nishidh Chavda, "Issues and Imperatives of Ad hoc Networks",International Journal of Computer Application (0975 – 8887) Volume 62 – No.13, January 2013.

Paper Title :: Structural, optical and electrical properties of PbTiO3 nanoparticles prepared by Sol-Gel method
Author Name :: M.K.Gerges || Massaud Mostafa || Gehad M. Rashwan
Country :: Egypt
Page Number :: 42-49
Lead titanate (PbTiO3; PT) powders were successfully prepared by a sol –Gel technique. PT powders were heated at various calcination temperatures, ranging from 500 to 1000 ºC, for 2 h at a heating/cooling rate of 5 ºC/min. Both X-Ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigations showed that well crystalline pure phase PbTiO3 nanopowders have been synthesized after calcination of the PbTiO3 gel at 1000 ºC. The second phases such as PbO, and TiO2 were detected in the powders calcined below 1000 ºC. The optical properties have been studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Morphology and structures have been determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrical properties were measured for deferent annealing time.
Keywords: Ceramics, ferroelectrics, nanoparicles, optical properties, electrical properties.
[1]. Kong, L. B., Zhang, T. S., Ma, J. and Boey, F. (2007). Progress in synthesis of ferroelectric ceramic materials via hight-energy mechanochemical technique. Progress in Materials Science, 53(2), 207-322.
[2]. Galasso F. S.and Pyle., Ordering in Compounds of the A(B'0.33Ta0.67)O3 Type. J., Inorg. Chem., 1963, 2 (3), 482-484.
[3]. Zhang, X., Wang O. and B.Gu, Study of the Order-Disorder Transition in A(B′B″)O3 Perovskite Type Ceramics. J.Am.Ceram.Soc., 1991, 74 (11), 2846-2850
[4]. Naoji Hiraki, Kazuo Nakamura, Kazuo Toi and Satoshi Itoh., Ion Temperature Measurements of Turbulently Heated Tokamak Plasma by Doppler-Broadening of Visible Lines in TRIAM-1. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 1981, 20, 183-187.
[5]. O. Auciello, J.F. Scott, R. Ramesh, The Physics of Ferroelectric Memories. Phys. Today., 1998, 51 (7), 22-27.

Paper Title :: Detection & Prevention Techniques of Sinkhole Attack in Mobile Adhoc Network: A Survey
Author Name :: Neelam J. Patel
Country :: India
Page Number :: 50-54
Sinkhole attack is one of severe kind of attack in wireless sensor network. Sinkhole attack tries to attract network traffic toward them by advertising un-authorized routing updates and reduce the performance of network. Sinkhole attacks are capable of performing to launch other attacks on the network such as selective forwarding and wormhole attacks. This paper focuses on exploring and analysing the surviving solution which uses to detect and prevent sinkhole attack in wireless sensor network. The analysis is based on used techniques, Function of Algorithm and parameter compared.
KEYWORDS - Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV), base station (BS); Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector (DSDV), wireless sensor network (WSN).
[1]. Dr.Nabeel Zanoon, Dr. Nashat Albdour et al., "SECURITY CHALLENGES AS A FACTOR AFFECTING THE SECURITY OF MANET: ATTACKS AND SECURITY SOLUTIONS", International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA) Vol.7, No.3, May 2015
[2]. Vandana B. Salve, Leena Ragha et al., "AODV Based Secure Routing Algorithm against Sinkhole Attack in Wirelesses Sensor Networks", IEEE-2015, 978-1-4799-6085-9/15
[3]. Udaya Suriya Rajkumar, D and Rajamani Vayanaperumal, "A Leader Based Monitoring Approach for Sinkhole Attack inWireless Sensor Network", Journal of Computer Science 9 (9):1106-1116, 2013, pp 1106-1116. ISSN: 1549-3636
[4]. Maliheh Bahekmat, et al, "A novel algorithm for detecting Sinhole attacks in WSNs", International Journal of Computer Theory andEngineering, Vol. 4, No. 3, June 2012, pp 418-421
[5]. D. Sheela, et al, "A non Cryptographic method of Sink hole attackDetection in Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE-InternationalConference on Recent Trends in Information Technology, June 3-52011, pp 527-532

Paper Title :: Path Planning, Dynamic Trajectory Generation and Control Analysis for a Wheeled Mobile Robot Using Nonlinear PID Neural based on Optimization Algorithm
Author Name :: Margarita Gjonaj || Betim CICO || Arnisa Myrtellari
Country :: Albania
Page Number :: 55-59
Robot manipulators takes on ever more important roles on the factory floors around the world. They have been useful for relieving humans of simple repetitive and hazardous work. One of the problems with existing robot installations are limited flexibility. The robots must be reprogrammed by a human operator when the environment changes. The goal of this paper is to presents a trajectory tracking control algorithm for a nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot using optimization technique based nonlinear PID neural controller in order to follow a pre-defined a continuous path. Particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to tune the nonlinear PID neural controller's parameters to find best velocity control actions for the mobile robot. Nonlinear PID neural controller is built and implemented in MATLAB software package and it is succeeded to solve the trajectory tracking problem of mobile robot. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear PID control algorithm; this is demonstrated by the minimized tracking error and the smoothness of the velocity control signal obtained
KEYWORDS - Nonholonomic Mobile Robot, Trajectory Tracking
[1]. Z.-P. Jiang, H. Nijmeijer, ―Tracking control of mobile robots: a case study in back stepping‖, Automatica 33 (7) (1997) 1393–1399
[2]. Choi and S. Ryew, H. ―Robotic system with active steering capability for internal inspection of urban gas pipelines‖, Mechatronics.Vol. 12, No. 5, (2002), pp.713-736
[3]. Y. Kanayama, Y. Kimura, F. Miyazaki, T. Noguchi, ―A stable tracking control method for an autonomous mobile robot‖, in Proceedings 1990 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, vol. 1, 1990, pp. 384–389.
[4]. C. Samson,‖ Time-varying feedback stabilization of car like wheeled mobile robot‖,International Journal of Robotics Research 12 (1) (1993) 55–64.
[5]. G.Klančar, I. Škrjanc, ―Tracking-error model-based predictive control for mobile robots in real time‖, Robotics and Autonomous Systems 55 (6) (2007) 460–469.

Paper Title :: Cluster Head Selection in Wireless Sensor Networks
Author Name :: Blessy Varghese || Soumya P
Country :: India
Page Number :: 60-66
Wireless sensor networks are wireless networks with sensors. Wireless networks are networks without wires. Energy consumption is remains a major challenge in wireless sensor networks. Energy saving can be achieve using good clustering. Clustering is defined as the dividing of sensor network in to small manageable units. Clustering approach is to improve the scalability of network (prolong) and lifetime of network. For better clustering, cluster head selection should be better. Introduce an algorithm for cluster head selection using different parameters like high energy, high throughput, minimum distance from base station and also consider the potential of each nodes. There is a chance for malicious node to become cluster head. So remove malicious nodes using Node Replication Attack Detection Protocol and Replay Attack Protocol. In clustering one node will act as a cluster head and remaining nodes will act as member nodes. Clustering is done using Association. Association means spatio-temporal stability. The cluster stable over a long period is the goal of this protocol.
KEYWORDS -Clustering, Cluster Head Selection, Cluster Member, Energy Consumption , Wireless sensor networks
[1] Suhas K. Pawar, Abhishek R. Tawde, ArchanaPokharkar, PriyaPanjwani, Prof.SuhasPatil "A Survey of Cluster formation Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks";2014 p. 40-49
[2] Andreas Hafslund, Andreas, Roar Rotvik, Jon Andersson and Kure "Secure Extension to the OLSR protocol", OLSR Interop and Workshop, 2004.
[3] P.Abinaya, C.Geetha "Dynamic Detection of Node Replication Attacks using X-RED in Wireless Sensor Networks" IEEE 2014 International Conference on Information Communication and Embedded Systems (ICICES) - Chennai, June 2014
[4] Akshay Kumar, Payal Pahwa, Deepali Virmani, Sahil, Vikas Rathi, Sunil Swami "Dynamic Cluster Head Selection Using Fuzzy Logic on Cloud in Wireless Sensor Networks" , International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Communication & Convergence (ICCC-2014) Conference Organized by Interscience Institute of Management and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
[5] Deepali Virmania, Savneet Kaurb, Satbir Jainc: "Secure and Fault Tolerant Dynamic Cluster Head Selection Method for Wireless Sensor Networks" International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies (ICICT 2014)

Country :: India
Page Number :: 67-70
From the consequences of serious earthquakes (since the first 1980s) it's terminated that the seismic risks in urban area unites area unit increasing and are off from socio-economically acceptable levels. there's associate degree imperative got to reverse this case and it's believed that one in all the foremost effective ways that of doing this is often through: (1) the event of a lot of reliable seismic standards and code provisions than those presently offered and (2) their rigorous implementation for the entire engineering of latest engineering facilities [9].A performance-based style is aimed toward dominant the structural injury supported precise estimations of correct response parameters. this is often attainable if a lot of correct analyses area unit dispensed, as well as all potential necessary factors concerned within the structural behavior [6].
[1] S.Mahesh and Dr.B.PandurangaRaoComparison of analysis and design of regular and irregular configuration of multi-Story building in various seismic zones and various types of soils using STAAD-Volume 11, Issue 6 Ver. I (Nov- Dec. 2014), PP 45-52
[2] Kevadkar M.D., Kodag P.B., 'Lateral load (loads due to earthquake, wind, blast, fire hazards etc) (earthquake loads, wind loads, blast, fire hazards etc.) Analysis of R.C.C. Building', International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), Vol.3, Issue.3, May-June. 2013, pp-1428-1434.
[3] SalehuddinShamshinar, Stability of a six storey steel frame structure, International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Vol.13 No.06, 2011.
[4] User Manual STAAD.Pro.
[5] Chopra, A. K., Dynamics of Structures(1995): Theory and Applications to Earthquake Engineering, Prentice-Hall. Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

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