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Vol. 08, No. 02 [February 2022]

Paper Title :: Particle Swarm Optimization for Tracking Control of a Self-Balancing Electric Unicycle
Author Name :: Awatef K. Ali || Magdi S. Mahmoud
Country :: Saudi Arabia
Page Number :: 01-08
This paper proposes an LQR controller for the balance and stability of an electric unicycle. Aparticle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is utilizedto automatically track the best solution of the weighting matrices Q and R of` the controller, rather than randomly choosing their weights. It also examines dynamics of the electric unicycle's schematic design, which has a backing seat for the passenger and is analogous to the Segway device equipped with a handle shaft for direction. Command tracking or regulation of some initial state condition were examined and demonstrated by time based simulations of the modelled system. The results evidently indicate that the LQR controller can effectively and efficiently attain attitude equilibrium for the two-wheeled unicycle.
Key Words: Unicycle, LQR, PSO.
[1] H. G. Nguyen, J. Morrell, K. D. Mullens, A. B. Burmeister, S. Miles, N. Farrington, K. M. Thomas, and D. W. Gage, "Segway robotic mobility platform," in Optics East, pp. 207-220, Intemational Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004.
[2] B. Sawatzky, I. Denison, S. Langrish, S. Richardson, K. Hiller, and B. Slobogean, "The segway personal transporter as an altemative mobility device for people with disabilities: A pilot study," Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 1423-1428, 2007.
[3] P.-C. Chen, S.-M. Pan, H.-S. Chuang, and C.-H. Chiang, "Dynamics analysis and robust control for electric unicycles under constrained control force," Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, pp. 1-21, 2016
[4] C.-H. Huang, W.-J. Wang, and C.-H. Chiu, "Design and implementation of fuzzy control on a two-wheel inverted pendulum," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 2988-3001, 2011.
[5] S.-C. Lin and C.-C. Tsai, "Development of a self-balancing human transportation vehicle for the teaching of feedback control," IEEE Transactions on Education, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 157-168, 2009.


Paper Title :: Applications of the Advection Diffusion Equation in Open Boundary Conditions and the Error Function With Contaminant Dispersion Examples
Author Name :: M. Sc. Zenteno Jiménez José Roberto
Country :: Mexico
Page Number :: 09-16
The advection and reaction diffusion equation is an important expression within many branches of engineering, due to its wide use within mathematical modeling in dispersion and diffusion processes in the transport of mass, economy or a contaminant within a porous medium or atmospheric. Now the objective of this article is to show the solution found in the previous article [12] was in terms of the Laplace and Fourier Transform now it will be in terms of the error function and its relationship with other solutions of the same partial differential equation can be an analytical solution option for one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional models, with some examples shown.
Key Words: Gaussian models, advection diffusion reaction equation, Laplace transform, error function.
[1]. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325561086_Una_solucion_analitica_para_la_ecuacion_de_difusion_adveccion_reaccion_por_medio_de_la_serie_de_Fourier
[2]. A First Course in Partial Differential Equation with Complex Variables and Transform Method H. F. Weinberger, Ed. Blaisdell Publishing Company, 1965.
[3]. Partial Differential Equations Analytical Solution Techniques, J.Kevorkian The Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole Mathematics Series, 1990.
[4]. Marchuk, G. I. (1986). Mathematical Models in Environmental Problems. Elsevier, New York.
[5]. Parra-Guevara, D. & Skiba, Y. N. (2003). Elements of the matematical modelling in the control of pollutants emissions, Ecological Modelling.


Paper Title :: Presence of Asbestos in Albania, an Approach
Author Name :: M.Sc Sevisjana Qorri || M.Sc Sardi Sejdini || Ph. D Klodjan Xhexhi
Country :: Albania
Page Number :: 17-23
Asbestos fibers have been widely used in the world but also in Albania. Being in contact with it is a daily risk to human life. Asbestos is also known as the silent killer. There are 2300 Asbestos based products worldwide. In our country the most widespread product is Eternite which has a content of 30% asbestos and 70% cement. Cement mixes very well with Asbestos fibers isolating them. During time cement collapse and losses, its physical properties by many factors including atmospheric ones causing the Asbestos fibers to expose themselves in the surrounding area. As a consequence of being microscopic, they penetrate to the human body endangering our lives. In the 60s and 80s in US, anti-Asbesto campaigns started for the first time, while in the EU it started very late in 1992 and unfortunately also during that period in developing countries this dangerous material was still being used endangering the lives of people. Every year over 100,000 people around the world die from incurable diseases caused by asbestos. In 2012, the use of Asbestos was strictly banned in European Union countries, including Israel.
Key Words: asbestos, disease, isolation, displacement, chrysotile ,carcinogen etj.
[1]. Frank, A.L., 2020. Global use of asbestos-legitimate and illegitimate issues. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 15(1), pp.1-6.
[2]. Marsili, D., Terracini, B., Santana, V.S., Ramos-Bonilla, J.P., Pasetto, R., Mazzeo, A., Loomis, D., Comba, P. and Algranti, E., 2016. Prevention of asbestos-related disease in countries currently using asbestos. International journal of environmental research and public health, 13(5), p.494.
[3]. Kazan-Allen, L., 2003. The asbestos war. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 9(3), pp.173-193.
[4]. Virta, R.L., 2002. Asbestos: Geology, mineralogy, mining, and uses (p. 28). Washington, DC: US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey.
[5]. Krówczyńska, M. and Wilk, E., 2018. Asbestos exposure and the mesothelioma incidence in Poland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(8), p.1741.





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