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Vol. 03, No. 09 [September 2017]

Paper Title :: Factors Influencing Milk Production Project Among Small Scale Dairy Farmers in Bomet East Sub County, Bomet County, Kenya
Author Name :: Michael Kipkirui Cheruiyot || Dr. Moses M. M. Otieno
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 01-23
The research was based on the factors influencing milk production project among small scale dairy farmers in Bomet East Sub County, Bomet County, Kenya. The study was guided these objective : to determine the extent to which demographic characteristics of small scale dairy farmers influent milk production project in Bomet East Sub- count, to analyze how cattle breeds variability affects milk production project in Bomet East Sub county , to examine how marketing factors influence milk production project among Small scale dairy farmers BometEast Sub county and to assess the extent to which training influences milk production project among small scale dairy farmers in Bomet East sub -county. The study is of significant to small scale dairy farmers through the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries on reducing unemployment, improvement of livelihood among dairy farmers and boosting economy as a county as well as reducing poverty as well as basis for scholars for further research. The study was granted the basic assumption that the respondent were able to give information objectively and honestly. Moreover, the study was also based on the assumption that data collection instrument was reliable as valid in taking the desired outcomes. The study was enhanced on the social- Psychology Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Culture of Poverty. The target population was 4,004 small scale dairy farmers. The researcher adopted in the study probability sampling design which achieved 404 respondents by employing stratified random sampling technique package in descriptive survey design. The compost of 400 farmers, three livestock officer and an official from KDB. The data collected was analyzed using SSPS version 20. The successful returned questioners are 400 respondents (99%).The finding showed that most of those who practice dairy farming are male(60) of age 26-35 years(32%).90 are married individual and most (68%) are of primary and below in education level The findings also showed that most have cross breed dairy cattle utilizing natural mating. The major market for their milk is neighbors and local shop/hotel of less than 1 km from their farms. Service as per the finding from Government livestock officers are poor(46) and most (40%) get training from GOK. Due to level of education and conduct with officers, the major source of information is through media(local radio station, Kass FM or Chamke FM)(40%). It is recommended the promotion of gender balance have to be promote and embrace ICT technology on transmitting information. Further research has to be made on how cooperatives are to promote milk production project.
[1]. Baltenweck, I. &Staal S.J. (2000).Determinants of adoption of dairy cattle technology inthe Kenyan Highlands; A Spatial and Dynamic Approach.
[2]. Bebe B.O., H.M.J. Udob, G.J. Rowlands, W. Thorpe (2003) Smallholder dairy systems inthe Kenya highlands: breed preferences and breeding practices, Livestock Production Science p. 82:117–127.
[3]. Bebe B.O., H.M.J. Udob, G.J. Rowlands&W. Thorpe (2003) Smallholder dairy systemsin the Kenya highlands: cattle population dynamics under increasingintensification, Livestock Production Science 82:211–221.
[4]. Brookside Dairy Limited Website: http://www.brookside.co.ke/bc about.html retrievedApril 2013.
[5]. Githunguri Dairy Farmers Cooperative website: http://www.fresha.co.ke/aboutus/githunguri-dairy-farmers-cooperative/ retrieved April 2013.

Paper Title :: Comparison between software and hardware control in PSM mode of a Buck converter
Author Name :: Abdellah El jounaidi || Abderraouf Aboudou || Abderrafia Sabir
Country :: Morocco
Page Number :: 24-29
The control of a DC-DC converter is generally done through a circuit comprising logic and analog components. In the presented work, we have ordered a Buck converter in two different ways. The first method consists in using a control in the form of an electrical circuit . The second method is based on the control of the converter through a programmable circuit. The program introduced in the form of a MATLAB embedded function and simulated under SIMULINK / MATLAB gave results similar to those obtained using the control made with a conventional electrical circuit. For the control, we chose the PSM mode (Pulse Skipping Modulation). It is an efficient and simple control to realize both in the form of an electrical circuit and under programming. The comparison of the results obtained under SIMULINK / MATLAB enabled us to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
Keywords: Buck Converter, PSM Mode, Programmable control, MATLAB embedded function.
[1]. S. Angkititrakul and H. Hu, Design and analysis of buck converter with pulse-skipping modulation, 2008 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Rhodes, 2008, 1151-1156.
[2]. N. Lokesh and R. Thangam, Computerized Soft-Start PSM Buck Converter, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Special Issue 5, 2016, 151-155. [3]. N. MOHANMOH, M. UNDELAND AND P. ROBBINS , POWER ELECTRONICS: CONVERTERS, APPLICATIONS, AND DESIGN ( NEW YORK : WILEY, 2002).
[4]. S. Kasat, Analysis, Design and Modeling of DC-DC Converter Using Simulink, M. Eng thesis, Oklahoma State University, USA, 2004.
[5]. S. Zich, Analysis and Design of Continuous Input Current Multiphase Interleaved Buck Converter, M. Eng thesis, California Polytechnic State University, CA, 2009.

Paper Title :: Factors influencing Monitoring and Evaluation Processes of County Road Projects in Turkana County Government, Kenya
Author Name :: Ng'etich Kiptanui Victor || Dr. Moses M. Otieno
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 30-41
Fast deteriorating state of roads in Kenya calls for need to focus on monitoring and evaluation of roads during construction. This study will focus on factors influencing monitoring and evaluation processes of county road projects in Turkana county government. Monitoring and evaluation has not been bought well by the relevant bodies/stakeholder like the contractors and ministries handling the projects via various funding bodies etc. Various researches have keenly highlightedthe M&E strategy but fail to notice the basic factors influencing the strategy.The study seeks to evaluate to which extent availability of funds, stakeholder participation and involvement of technical persons affects performance of monitoring and evaluation processes of county road projects in Turkana County Government.The study was limited to road infrastructure construction projects within the County government of Turkana and the major limitation of the study proofed to be the cost and time constraints. This study utilized a descriptive survey design where self-administered questionnaires and secondary sources were used for data collection.The subjects of study were drawn from the 35 ongoing road projects per financial year and within the geographical precincts of the unit of study. The 50 respondents were selected from employees who have worked in the construction and maintenance of roads since the county government came in place. This comprised of the technical staff in the Ministry of Roads, Transport & Public works (Turkana County), contractor‟s team and the Monitoring & Evaluation Committee from Ministry of Finance &Planning. The sampling technique used in this research was Stratified Random Sampling Technique, a type of probability sampling technique. Numerical data collected using questionnaires was coded and entered and analyzed with the help Ms Office Package: Excel. A descriptive analysis with frequency table and varying percentages was used to present the findings of the research. The data was also analyzed using Excel 2013 data analysis: Anova tests to establish if there were any statistical differences between the means of the independent groups.The ANOVA tests yielded P-values greater than the 0.05 level of significance indicating that there was no significant relationship between availability of funds, stakeholder participation, involvement of technical personnel and the monitoring and evaluation processes. Hypothesis testing was further analyzed using Excel 2013 data analysis; t-test-Two samples assuming unequal variances. The researcher concludes from the available data that funds available for M&E of most of the county projects are not adequate, unplanned and that there‟s no timely disbursement. It is further concluded that stakeholder participation is essential in project management as they have significant influence over the project deliverables and finally involvement of technical persons is key in carrying out M&E activities. The study findings therefore indicated that there is a great influence of availability of funds, stakeholder participation and involvement of technical persons on M&E processes of county road projects..
[1]. African Development Bank. (1999). African Development Report 1999: Infrastructure Development in Africa. Oxford University Press.
[2]. Ahadzie, D. K. (2011). A Study of the Factors Affecting the Performance of Contractors Working on KMA Projects, Journal of Local Government Studies, Vol. 3 .
[3]. Ahmed, Azhar, Castillo and Kapagantulla. (2012). Integration in the Construction Industry:Information Technology as the Driving Force, In Proceedings of the 3rd InternationalConference on Project Management, (Singapore: Nanyang Technical University).
[4]. Benmaamar, M. (2002). Urban transport services in sub-Saharan Africa: recommendations forreforms in Uganda. Crowthorne: Transport Research Laboratory, November 2002 refPA3834/02.
[5]. Casley, D. & Kumar, K. (1988). The collection, Analysis and use of Monitoring and Evaluation Data. Maryland: World Bank.

Paper Title :: The use of Rietveld Method as a powerful tool for elucidating the anatase-to-rutile phase transition in titanium dioxide
Author Name :: Cruz N.A. || Cavalheiro A.A. || Stropa J.M. || Favarin L.R.V. || Machulek A. || Oliveira L.C.S. || Amoresi R.A.C. || Zaghete M.A
Country :: Brazil
Page Number :: 42-48
Titanium dioxide semiconductor material has been extensively investigated for several purposes and several dopants has been inserted aiming new photonic properties. Several properties of titanium dioxide powders depend on the crystalline structure of anatase phase and some modifiers can be provide better or another characteristics. Some aspects of structural rearrangements inanatase phase can be satisfactorily evaluated by X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement in order to elucidate defect elimination and the basis ofthe anatase-to-rutile phase transition. By monitoring the lattice parameters along the temperature of thermal treatment, it is possible to understand the consequences of the dopant insertion and aid to propose new modification in the future.In this work, it was investigated the structural effects caused in anatase structure and in anatase-to-rutile phase transition by the simultaneous modification with 2 mol% of silicon and 4 mol% of zirconium homovalent modifiers. It was observed an effective stabilization of the anatase phase up to temperature as high as 900 °C besides the continuous increase of tetragonality.
Keywords: XRD characterization, Phase transition, Rietveldrefinement, Sol-Gelsynthesis
[1] B. Li, X.Wang, M.Yan, and L.Li, Preparation and Characterization of Nano-TiO2Powder. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 78(1), 2002, 184-188.
[2] S.A.Lopes, N.A.Cruz, D.C.Manfroi, R.G.Dias, M.S.Silva, M.A.Zaghete, A. Dos Anjos, A.A.Cavalheiro, and L.C.S.Oliveira, Effect of the Iron Doping on the Thermal Decomposition of the Polymeric Precursor for the Titanium Dioxide Powder Synthesis. Materials Science Forum, 798-799, 2014, 211-216.
[3] D.A.H Hanaor, and C.C. Sorrell, Review of the Anatase to Rutile Phase Transformation. Journal of Materials Science, 46, 2011, 855-874.
[4] A.A.Cavalheiro, J.C. Bruno, J.P.S. Valente, M.J. Saeki, and A.O.Florentino, Photocatalytic decomposition of diclofenac potassium using silver-modified TiO2 thin films. Thin Solid Films, 516, 2008, 6240-6244.
[5] O. Harizanov, and A. Harizanova. Development and Investigation of Sol-Gel Solutions for the Formation of TiO2Coatings. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 63(2), 2000, 185-195.

Paper Title :: Determinants of Sustainability of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education Programs in Tana River County, Kenya
Author Name :: Rehema Bona Abiyo
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 49-62
Latest research in policy enactment has shown a considerable failure in policies in developing countries. One of the challenges facing the execution of the language in education policy in Kenya has been its sustainability, yet the policy has been in existence since 1976. The LiEP has been seen to be an answer to the matters of quality yet its implementation levels have been significantly low. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of the sustainability of mother tongue based multilingual education (MTBMLE) programs which are guided by this policy. The research study targets a population of 1,444 and employ mixed methods of research. Multi-method designs are generally intended to complement one information source with another, or triangulate on an issues by utilizing different data sources to approach a research problem from a different points of view. Data was gathered using questionnaires, interview and Focused Group Discussions. Frequency and percentages statistics were used. The study revealed that there are relationships between language in education policy, availability of material resources, availability of human resources and involvement of stakeholders in the sustainability of mother tongue based multilingual education programs.
Key words: Language in Education Policy (LiEP): the policy that guides the usage of languages in school either as a medium or language of instruction or as a subject.
Language of Instruction (LoI): the language used by a teacher to teach the curriculum of an education system. This term is used synonymously with the school language and the medium of instruction.
Mother Tongue (MT): the first language a child is exposed to or the language of the catchment area of the school.
Bilingual Education (BE): an education system where the children receive educational instruction in two languages, one of them being the mother tongue of the children in the school.
Multilingual education (MLE): an education system where the children receive educational instruction in mother tongue and at least one other language that are used as language of teaching in school
[1]. Alidou et al (eds). 2006. Optimizing Learning and Education in Africa. The Language: ADEABaker, C. (2000). Three perspectives on bilingual education policy in Wales: Bilingual education as language planning, bilingual education as pedagogy and bilingual education as politics. In R. DAUGHERTY, R. PHILLIPS & G. REES (eds), Education Policy in Wales: Explorations in Devolved Governance. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
[2]. Benson, C. (2000). The primary bilingual education experiment in Mozambique, 1993 to 1997. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 3(3), 149-166.
[3]. Bonaya, A. S. (2012). Factors influencing the effective implementation of mother tongue education programs among communities in Tana River County Kenya: M.A Project Research. University of Nairobi.
[4]. Chiatoh, A. B. (2011). Assessing community response to literacy in a multilingual context: The case of Cameroon. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of African Languages and Linguistics (DALL). Yaoundé: University of Yaoundé
[5]. Cochran, W. G. (1977). Sampling Techniques, 3rd edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Paper Title :: Influence of Time Overruns on the Implementation of County Construction Projects; The Case of Lamu County, Kenya
Author Name :: Aisha Muchile Mohamed
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 63-88
Time overruns and delays in implementation of construction projects has become a common phenomenon globally and Kenya is no exception, especially with the coming of devolution system. Failure to timely deliver projects interferes with project deliverables which in turn have negative impacts on project success in terms of time, cost, quality and safety. Identifying the significant factors influencing project delays and overrun is vital to minimize these impacts. A number of factors have been said to influence the rates at which these projects are completed. The Purpose of this study was to examine the Influence of Time Overruns in the Implementation of County Construction Projects; the Case of Lamu County, Kenya. The study was based on three theories that touched on organizational theory, agency theory, and financial distress theory. The research was guided by the following objectives: to determine the influence of political good-will in the implementation of County construction projects; the case of Lamu county, Kenya; to assess the influence of budgetary allocations on the implementation of County construction projects; the case of Lamu county, Kenya ; to examine how organisation structures within the county government influence the implementation of County construction projects; the case of Lamu county, Kenya; and to find out the extent to which contracts management influences the implementation of County construction projects; the case of Lamu county, Kenya. This study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population was 70 respondents. Stratified sampling was used to select 60 respondents so as to allow full participation of the respondents. Primary data was collected using structured administered questionnaires consisting of both closed and open-ended questions. Data collection tools were piloted among 10 respondents in the neighboring Kilifi county and suggestions made before finalizing their development. The researcher visited the targeted respondents, used research assistants to access some other respondents, and e-mailed questionnaires to some respondent who were not easily accessible for one on one questionnaire filling. Data collected was analyzed using quantitative methods with the help of (SPSS) version 20. Research findings showed that of the 60 targeted respondents 50 of them responded representing 83.33% response rate considered adequate to constitute a basis for valid conclusion. From the study‟s findings, it was concluded that, politics and political goodwill has a significant influence on the rates of projects completion. The politicians decide the amount of money to be allocated to various projects, the time periods that this money should take to reach the project implementers, the site/location of the projects, the priority projects and many more. The study also concluded that the budgetary allocations from both the national and county governments have a significant influence on the implementation and completion of projects. Besides, the researcher concludes that county governance structures have a significant influence on the rates of projects completion. Finally, the researcher concludes that contracts management significantly influences the rates at which projects are completed by counties. The laws, rules and regulations that govern the people to be awarded contracts, the people to award the contracts, the stakeholders to be enjoined in the contractual process and the time periods of paying the contractors is very important in determining the time projects are completed. The study recommends that future research should be undertaken in other counties in the coast region to ascertain whether such factors outlined above also influence the rates of projects completion. The study also recommends for a research to be done examining the influence of community participation on construction projects implementation in counties, in Kenya.
[1]. Abdi Mohammed Daib. (2013). Factors Influencing Completion Rate Of Construction Projects In Devolved Units In Kenya: A Case Of The Modernization Of Sewage System In Wajir County. http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke
[2]. Aftab Hameed Memon.(2014). Time Overrun in Construction Projects from the Perspective of Project Management Consultant (PMC): Journal of Surveying, Construction & Property Vol. 2 Issue 1 2014; ISSN: 1985-7527
[3]. Aftab et al (2015). Significant Factors Causing Time Overrun in Construction Projects of Peninsular Malaysia. Modern Applied Science; Vol. 8, No. 4; 2015: ISSN 1913-1844 E-ISSN 1913-1852
[4]. Agu Justina Chioma. (2015). Socio-Political Factors Affecting Project Planning, Management through Implementation in Nigeria. Department of Business Management and Administration, Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria
[5]. Alinaitwe et al. (2015).Investigation into the Causes of Delays and Cost Overruns in Uganda's Public Sector Construction Projects:

Paper Title :: Design and testing of a cluster-tree topology networking protocol over cost effective non-standard RF module
Author Name :: Habibur Rahman || Nidhal AbdulAziz || Mohamed Fareq Abdulmalek
Country :: UAE
Page Number :: 89-96
This paper demonstrates the experimental result of a wireless network using the proprietary low cost and low power NRF24L01+ radio module. The wireless network can theoretically connect up to 65,000 nodes using low power, moderate transmission rate but have high quality of service communication and negotiable range compensating power consumption (Link budget). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such network has been implemented. The network consumes very small power compared to other standards such as ZigBee, and Bluetooth LE. The paper describes the protocol used for the network and the test results for number of nodes connected with a sample application of the network. The intended application includes but not limited to lighting array network, low power sensor nodes for IoT, wireless bootloader, garden control, home automation, etc.
Keywords: RF communications, networks, nrf24, IoT, wireless networks
[1]. J. Leonard, "Not a standard wireles solution," [Online]. Available: https://goo.gl/UAgztR.
[2]. Nordic Semiconductor, "nRF24L01+ Product Specification 1.0," [Online]. Available: https://www.nordicsemi.com/eng/nordic/download_resource/8765/2/39049718/2726.
[3]. Charles, "NRF24L01 real life range test," [Online]. Available: https://hallard.me/nrf24l01-real-life-range-test/.
[4]. J.-S. . Lee, Y.-W. . Su and C.-C. . Shen, "A Comparative Study of Wireless Protocols: Bluetooth, UWB, ZigBee, and Wi-Fi," , 2007. [Online]. Available: http://eee.guc.edu.eg/announcements/comparaitive_wireless_standards.pdf. [Accessed 8 9 2017].
[5]. A. J. V. Abinayaa, "Case Study on Comparision of Wireless Technologies in Industrial Applications," Internal Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, vol. 4, no. 2, 2014.

Paper Title :: Optimizing Communications and Automation in Micro Farms
Author Name :: Khushal Khan Liwal || Czarina Copiaco || Manohar Vohra || Habibur Rahman || Nidhal Abdulaziz || Mohamed Fareq Malek6
Country :: UAE
Page Number :: 97-101
In the fast-paced growing society of the 21st century, the agricultural economy is slowly being left behind, however, the thirst for fresh, organic, cheap crops continues. The proposed system incorporates latest technologies, tools and designs, providing a platform for anyone to become a modern-day farmer with an easy, yet efficient, confine method of farming. The research intends to create an indoor farm with shelving unit of three-four shelves holding shallow bins of soil. Above the plants LEDs panels provides the lighting for the plants. Customized wireless network together with its own protocol using wireless technologies and different sensors for the temperature, humidity and other sensors have been developed, making indoor farming available to any user.
Keywords: Micro-Farming, IoT, nRF24L01, RaspberryPi, vertical farming,
[1]. S. Key, J. Ma and P. Drake, "Genetically modified plants and human health," J R Soc Med 2008, 101: 290–298. DOI 10.1258/jrsm.2008.070372
[2]. Y. Yao et al., "Soil organic matter spatial distribution change over the past 20 years and its causes in Northeast," 2013 Second International Conference on Agro-Geoinformatics (Agro-Geoinformatics), Fairfax, VA, 2013, pp. 433-438.
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[4]. Robert Mendelsohn (2008) The Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Developing Countries, Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 1:1, 5-19, DOI: 10.1080/19390450802495882
[5]. V. R. Squires, E. P. Glenn, "Salination, Desertification, and Soil Erosion," The Role of Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Human Nutrition (Vol.III), Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS).

Paper Title :: Improvisation of the Efficiency of Circular Micro strip Patch Antennas using Slots and Substrate Thickness Variation
Author Name :: Abigail Copiaco || Mohamed Fareq Malek || Nidhal Abdulaziz || Obada Al Khatib || Halim Khelalfa
Country :: UAE
Page Number :: 102-107
Wearable antennas are commercially widely utilized due to its remarkable contribution towards navigation and federal safety innovation, along with its portability and efficiency advantages. Circular micro strip patch antennas, although beneficial in terms of flexibility and good radiation control, are also known for their bandwidth deficiencies, which require a longer period of transient analysis. Additionally, this tends to produce greater return losses. Hence, this paper leans towards improvising the efficiency of the Circular Micro strip patch antenna, operating at 2.4 GHz frequency, on a high-pressure fiberglass laminate (G-10) lossy substrate. This is addressed through the introduction of a circular centre slot, and the variation of the levels of the substrate's thickness. Optimum results suggest a -24 dB return loss for the slotted Circular Micro strip Patch Antenna, while a -15.9 dB return loss is achieved with a regular, non-slotted Circular Patch Antenna. Simulation and results were gathered through CST Microwave Studio.
Keywords: Wearable Antenna, Circular Micro strip Antenna, 2.4 GHz, G-10 Substrate
[1]. M.Ayyapan, B.Manoj, S.Rodrigues, "Low Return Loss Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna at 5.8 GHz for Wide-band Applications", International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, and Optimization Techniques (ICEEOT), 2016, pp. 3023-3026.
[2]. J.M. Rathod , "Comparative study of microstrip patch antenna for wireless communication application", International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, vol.1, no.2, 2010, pp. 194-197.
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[4]. M.T. Huque, M. Chowdhury, M.K. Hosain, M.S. Alam,"Performance and Analysis of corporate feed rectangular patch element and circular patch element 4x2 microstrip array antennas", International Journal of Advanced Computer Science & Applications, 2011, vol.2, no.7.
[5]. C.A. Balanis, "Antenna theory: Analysis and design", 2005, vol. 1.

Paper Title :: Determinants of Implementation of County Government Projects: A Case of Infrastructural Projects Inkilifi County, Kenya
Author Name :: Abdulrahman Abdalla || Dr. Moses Otieno
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 108-118
Infrastructural projects contribute towards the socioeconomic development of a country and individuals due to improved standard of living. County governments in Kenya have been implementing infrastructural projects since 2013 and several projects have been implemented since devolution following the implementation of the constitution of Kenya in 2010. Nevertheless, the implementation of these projects has been facing various challenges countrywide leading to having abandoned projects, incomplete projects and unutilized completed projects all of which are signs of poor project planning and implementation. The purpose of the study was to determine the determinants of implementation of infrastructure projects in Kilifi County so as to draw lessons that can help improve project implementation and was guided by the following objectives: First to examine how project manager competency influence implementation of infrastructural projects.Secondly,to determine how community participation influence implementation of infrastructural projects. Thirdly, to examine how project certification influence implementation of infrastructural projects and lastly to examine how project funding influence implementation of infrastructural projects.A survey of literature indicated that implementation of infrastructural projects experiences a number of influences including project manager‟s competency, community participation in projects identification and implementation, project certification and project funding in prioritization of projects. The study analysed the determinants of project implementation in Kilifi County specifically. The study adopted a descriptive survey design using questionnaires which were a quick way of obtaining information and cost effective within a short period of time over a target population of 60 from three sub counties in Kilifi County and the return rate was 83.33%. Purposive sampling technique was used to target all the target population because of technical knowhow with data collected analysed using statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS) 20.0.Spearman Rank Co-efficient was used to test the hypotheses .The findings of the study showed that Project managers‟ competency to be an effective strategy in implementation of infrastructure project in Kilifi County with community participation in project implementation of the infrastructural projects builds trust and reduce resistance to implementation of the projects by the local community in Kilifi County. This is the reason that improved relationships among stakeholders was observed after carrying out participation of local community on projects implementation of infrastructure projects in Kilifi county. Project certification also showed to determine the implementation of infrastructure projects in Kilifi County with experienced certified project managers effective on implementation strategies that would ensure projects success hence making them better placed in terms of project implementation than uncertified project managers without similar experiences. Project funding showed a positive relationship in terms of implementation of the infrastructure projects in Kilifi County and the relationship was significant at 0.05. This was seen as either funding is availed in good time, sufficient as well as good flow of funds in the projects to finance project activities. The study recommended that all the four factors should be embraced in project implementation and suggested for further research.
Keywords: Project Management Competency, Community Participation, Project Certification, Project Funding, Kilifi County Government
[1]. Alga.(2010). The Local Roads Funding Gap, Australian Local Government Association, Canberra. [2]. Amartya Sen. (1999) Development as freedom. New York: Oxford University Press
[3]. Assaf, S.A., Al-Khalil, M. and Al-Hazml, M (2012),.Causes of delay in Large Building Construction Projects.Journal of Management in Engineering.
[4]. Baker, K. [ 1993] Citizen participation in Local Government. Pretoria: Van Schaik.
[5]. Becerik B. (2004)."A Review on Past, Present and Future of Web-Based Project Management and Collaboration Tools and their Adoption by the US AEC Industry," International Journal of IT in Architecture, Engineering and Construction.

Paper Title :: Social Cultural Factors Influencing the Participation of Women in the Implementation of Community Projects (A Case of Kilifi County, Kenya)
Author Name :: Safia Abdallah Iddy || Mr. Johnbosco Kisimbii
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 119-132
The purpose of the study was to examine the social cultural factors influencing the participation of Women in the implementation of community projects in Kilifi County-Kenya. The study had three objectives; to determine the extent to which level of knowledge on projects influence the participation of Women in the implementation of community projects; to assess the influence of religious tradition on the level of participation of Women in the implementation of community projects in Kilifi County and to examine the influence of attitudes towards work on the implementation of community projects in Kilifi County. The study employed the use of a descriptive survey research design. The target population for the study was 249 Women sampled in Town. Questionnaires were used for data collection. Chi square was used to test the hypotheses. Based on findings revealed, the researcher recommends that awareness and trainings, much civic education should be done, children should be taken to school, to raise people level of knowledge. Cultural traditions should be taught and well interpreted, should also encourage women participation. Dogmatic cultures and traditions should be left out and upholding the constitution by meaningfully involving women in community projects Awareness campaigns on gender should be done to abolish the stereotyping, sex segregation and down rating of women in the society. The whole Kenyan government, faith based organization, donors and all the ministries in the country should hold hands to uphold and enforce the constitution which incorporate each and every citizen in the development agenda.
Keywords: Implementation, Attitude, Community Projects, Religion, Kilifi County.
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Paper Title :: Fuzzy Real Options Analysis Applied to Urban Renewable Energy Investments
Author Name :: Candace Partridge || Francesca Romana Medda
Country :: London
Page Number :: 133-147
The application of real options and fuzzy real options to renewable energy investment decisions is explored in the context of the valuation of three urban rooftop solar projects. Four real options methods were used to analyse the abandonment option present within these projects. Two of these methods, Fuzzy Black-Scholes and Fuzzy Binomial, used fuzzy numbers for the cashflow and salvage inputs. The resulting European put valuations for the option to sell the projects off for salvagewere consistent across the various techniques, including both classical and fuzzy. The real options present within the solar projects consistently added value to the adjusted net present values of the projects, which should improve their investment prospects. Additionally, we discuss the role of using fuzzy options pricing techniques as opposed to traditional real options and their usefulness to the practitioner.
[1]. Abadie, L. & Chamorro, J., 2014. Valuation of Wind Energy Projects: A Real Options Approach. Energies, 7(5), pp.3218–3255. Available at: http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/7/5/3218/ [Accessed November 17, 2014].
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Paper Title :: A review of citizen-centric modelsfor evaluating e-government services: A Kenyan perspective
Author Name :: Lincoln Kithandi || Wilson Ambale
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 148-154
Citizen-centricity is about shifting the focus of government around and designing portals from the view point of the citizen and businesses. The portals should take care of the needs of the citizen and business rather than operational or other imperatives inside the government machine. But some government agencies have successfully implemented a customer centric approach to service design and delivery. This paper identifies five citizen-centric models that could be adopted in the context of Kenya. A comparison of the five models is also made and the most suitable citizen centric model to the Kenyan context is proposed.
Keywords: Citizen-centric, e-government, e-service, system, model
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